1. Following the shooting of Lee Harvey Oswald, Jack Ruby's relationship with the Dallas Police Department was scrutinized. Rumors had naturally arisen concerning this relationship. They included the allegations that Ruby provided off-duty employment for officers at his nightclubs,(1) that he enabled policemen to obtain bank loans by acting as a cosigner, (2) that he provided officers with female companionship,(3) and that he had visited Hot Springs, Ark. with the chief of police. (4) Although documentation for these allegations has not been produced, it is known that Jack Ruby did maintain a close relationship with the police force, "one of the greatest police forces in the world," according to Ruby,(5) even if its nature cannot be determined with precision.


  2. Ruby took great pride in and thoroughly. enjoyed his friendships with Dallas police officers. He has been described as an individual who loved police officers, (6) was a "police buff," (7) had great respect for authority(8) and was "keenly interested in policemen and their work."(9) The relationship was both collectively and individually. oriented. "I have always been very close to the police department:' Ruby stated in 1964, "I don't know why."(10) As part of this closeness Ruby offered his friends what he could: a free table, a few beers, a listening ear.

  3. Ruby told the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) that he had never given money or other things of value to officers except when he gave out bottles of whiskey as Christmas gifts.(11) This practice may have occurred at other times, since it has been reported that policemen were seen going into Ruby's private office in the Carousel (one of Ruby's nightclubs) and leaving with bottles of whiskey. (12) Further, Ruby brought refreshments to officers working at headquarters during major criminal investigations,(13) a practice illustrated by his offer of sandwiches to officers working Friday night, November 22, 1963. (14) On another occasion, Ruby bought two officers late-night steak dinners at a restaurant near the Carousel, (15) and an employee of an all-night restaurant in Dallas told the FBI that when Ruby was present, he would pick up the checks of all Dallas policemen in the restaurant. (16)
    *Prepared by Donald A. Purdy, Jr., senior staff counsel and Howard Shapiro, research attorney.

  4. Ruby was also generous at his nightclubs, waiving the usual cover charge and providing beer and mixed drinks to officers at reduced prices or for free, (17) and perhaps coffee and sandwiches. (18) Joey Gerard, an entertainer who worked at the Carousel occasionally, remarked that Ruby always had a pot of coffee at the end of the bar, and officers would congregate there. (19) Another Carousel employee said that policemen had free access to the kitchen, where they could help themselves to food. (20) Ruby wrote, "The police always were free to use my private office to make calls." (21) Perhaps this "hospitality was not unusual for a Dallas nightclub operator," (22) and possibly other burlesque clubs had similar policies for policemen, (23) but the scope of Ruby's actions seems unusual. One ex-employee of Ruby's told the FBI that he would have a "celebrity night" at the club every Sunday night, where he would entertain as many as eight law enforcement officers and give them steak dinners and drinks. (24) Ruby suggested that these gestures, in spite of the difficulties he sometimes encountered in making a profit, (25) were to be viewed as a manifestation of his concern for the financial status of Dallas police officers. Police salaries were low and officers had little money to spend for personal entertainment. (26)

  5. When Officer L.C. Mullinax was killed while on duty in 1962, Ruby was reportedly deeply affected, grieving over the death for several days.(27) He attended the funeral(28) and forced several strippers-employees to do so. (29) Afterwards, Ruby gave $150 to the officer's widow, even though the light bill at his club was in arrears. (30) Reportedly, Ruby staged a benefit performance for the widow of another slain policeman. (31) Earl Ruby told the committee that his brother once gave a policeman several hundred dollars to cover the cost of his wife's pregnancy. (32)

  6. Intimations have been made that Ruby made payoffs to DPD members for protection and to avoid being closed down for liquor or other violations. (33) There is, however, no significant documentation of this,(34) and Police Chief Jesse Curry commented that payoffs were most unlikely because there was no need for Ruby to pay any police officer. (35) Although, in 1963, Ruby told a boyhood friend that he had had to make small payoffs to unidentified city officials when he first came to Dallas, he had discontinued this practice because Dallas had become an extremely clean city vis-a-vis vice activities. (36)

  7. Similarly, a belief has arisen that Ruby was an informant for the police. Although the idea of Ruby as a registered DPD informant has been thoroughly disavowed by Chief Curry (37) and questioned by other officers, (38) several policemen have stated that they received information from Ruby which led to arrests and aided investigations. Detectives Joe Cody and A. M. Eberhardt, who were partners, mentioned a number of specific instances when Ruby gave them information leading to arrests. (39) Officer J. Herbert Sawyer told the select committee that he had heard that Ruby had passed on information to various officers, but that the information had been of little importance. (40) Detective Cody stated that a phone call from Ruby to headquarters was not an uncommon event, and whoever Ruby knew was on duty at the time was given the opportunity to receive a criminal lead.(41)

  8. Civilians were also aware of Ruby's tendencies to provide information. One of his employees said that Ruby was furnishing criminal information to police officers, (42) Bobby Simons, a musician who periodically played at Ruby's clubs, said that Ruby was a "fink." (43)

  9. Ruby promoted and enjoyed the camaraderie and companionship of individual officers, making a point of using an officer's first name. (44) Ruby knew quite a few of the names of the approximately 1,200 men on the force in 1963. (45) Although a definite count was not possible, there can be no doubt that Chief Curry's statement that Ruby was known by no more than 50 DPD employees was incorrect. (46) Jack Revill, an officer for over 20 years, stated in 1978:

    I would say that those officers who knew Jack Ruby were nonuniform personnel, with the exception of the officers assigned to various beats where his clubs were geographically located. Consequently, we are talking about members of the vice section, narcotics section, the intelligence section, approximately 60 men in that Bureau. Members of the burglary and theft unit would probably have known Jack Ruby. Some members of homicide and robbery may have known him. So we are probably speaking in the area of 100 to 150 people, officers, who would have known Jack Ruby, and this included uniform officers also. (47)

  10. Detective Eberhardt stated that Ruby "knew just about everybody,"(48) and a majority of DPD members interviewed in 1963 and subsequently have admitted to being acquainted with Ruby or having been in one of his clubs. Almost all knew of him as a Dallas businessman and nightclub owner. (49)

  11. Detective E.E. Carlson was a close friend of Ruby's,(50) perhaps as the result of an incident in 1954 when Carlson and his partner, Officer D.L. Blankenship, were outnumbered and endangered by flying beer bottles in an altercation in or near one of Ruby's clubs, the Silver Spur. According to Detective Eberhardt, Ruby was always ready to defend police honor: "If an officer got in trouble around his place, he would help him." (51) On this occasion, Ruby interceded and enabled the-two officers to come out relatively unscathed. (52) Detective Carlson commented that he felt a strong sense of gratitude toward Ruby as a result of this event. (53)

  12. Lieutenant George C. Arnett told the FBI that he was very well acquainted with Ruby. (54) Officer Harry N. Olsen was another of Ruby's better friends, in part because he dated (and eventually married) a Carousel stripper, Kay Coleman. (55) Olsen told the warren Commission that he would talk to Ruby and try to calm him down when he got mad.(56) Ruby also spent some time (possibly over an hour) on Friday night, November 22, 1963, with Olsen and his future wife. (57)

  13. Detectives Eberhardt and Cody were also close friends of Ruby. Detective Eberhardt stated that he visited Ruby's club almost every night when he was on the night shift,(58) and that he had invited Ruby to his home for the christening of his child, born in 1963. (59) Detective Cody has said that he and Ruby went ice skating together, adding that Ruby was an avid hockey fan. (60) Lieutenant James R. Gilmore, a frequent visitor to Ruby's clubs due to his duties on the vice squad,(61) was said by Sam Ruby, Jack's brother, to have been very friendly with Ruby.(62) Others made similar statements to the FBI following the Oswald shooting. (63)

  14. It is unclear whether Ruby cultivated friendships with DPD senior officers. Captain Will Fritz, the head of homicide, strongly denied knowing Ruby,(64) saying that the first time he saw Ruby was when Ruby was arrested following the Oswald shooting(65) and that he had had to ask who he was. (66) Others were not so sure. Robert Lee Shoreman, a musician sometimes employed by Ruby, stated that an older detective by the last name of Fritz frequented the Carousel during one period.(67) Travis Kirk, an attorney familiar with the Dallas law enforcement scene (he worked in the district attorney's office for 6 years) opined that Captain Fritz and Ruby had to have known each other, although he had never seen them together. Kirk stated that Captain Fritz was a "domineering, dictatorial officer possessing photographic memory," and he would certainly have known any nonlaw enforcement persons who had access to headquarters (68) which Ruby did. (69)

  15. Alfred Davidson, who was befriended by Ruby in the autumn of 1963, said that Ruby was casually acquainted with the chief of police and other high-level officers. (70) Reagan Thurman, a long-time friend of Ruby's, said the same. (71)

  16. Despite Ruby's many police friendships, incidents similar to Detective Cody's ice-skating account were rare, as almost all DPD Ruby encounters took place in his clubs or at police headquarters. (72) There was an allegation that Ruby had been seen riding in squad cars, (73) and Eva Grant, Ruby's sister, told the Warren Commission that some officers had been out to Ruby's apartment. (74)


  17. It is unclear whether Ruby knew Officer J.D. Tippit. Ruby stated that he did not.(75) Others, however, have said that Ruby did know Tippit or that Tippit had frequented Ruby's club(s), (76) sometimes also alleging a possible conspiracy.(77) Andy Armstrong, a Carousel employee, told the FBI that when Ruby heard the news of Tippit's shooting on Friday afternoon while at the Carousel, he indicated he knew Tippit. (78)

  18. At a later date, Ruby told Armstrong that the Tippit he knew was another man on the force and not the one killed. (79) There were three men on the force who pronounced their names similarly, although there were minor spelling differences,(80) and Ruby admitted being acquainted with Detective Gayle M. Tippit. (81)


  19. An important question is whether Ruby received anything in return for his friendship and whatever favors he bestowed, beyond personal satisfaction and vicarious feelings. Tangible rewards are difficult to ascertain and appear to be minimal. Ruby said he never asked for any special favors from any police personnel,(82) a contention echoed by Theodore Fleming, an officer who knew Ruby and left the force in March 1963. (83)

  20. Nevertheless, Ruby seems to have been able to avoid minor legal and criminal difficulties, difficulties which should have followed from Ruby's violent character.(84) In 1961, a stripper known as Najada was allegedly slapped by Ruby. She immediately went over to a lieutenant or captain of the DPD vice squad who was in the Carousel at the time, saying she wanted to press charges. The officer laughed at her in Ruby's presence and told her she was crazy.(85)

  21. In February 1963, Ruby assaulted Don Tabon at the Adolphus Hotel, injuring his eye. (86) The incident was treated similarly. Tabon having filed a complaint against Ruby, received a phone call from a DPD detective who suggested he drop the matter. (87) Tabon did not heed this advice, but Ruby was acquitted on the assault charge. (88)

  22. Ruby may have been able to get traffic tickets taken care of. (89) Sam Ruby recalled that at one time Ruby and/or his sister, Eva Grant, had six tickets outstanding, and a warrant was issued. A Lieutenant Shakespeare took care of the matter. (90)

  23. When Ruby hired a new exotic dancer, he was able to use his DPD contacts to determine the true age of the dancer (he wanted to avoid underage employees) and whether she had a criminal record or was involved in drugs or prostitution. (91) Had there been evidence of such involvement, the vice squad would have advised Ruby to fire her. (92) When Mrs. Eileen Kaminsky, one of Ruby's sisters, visited Dallas in August 1963, there was hearsay that the DPD treated her with unusual hospitality. (93)

  24. An indirect advantage of Ruby's DPD friendships was the official and unofficial presence of policemen in his clubs, from which he gained protection from troublemakers and felons. The possibility that off-duty DPD officers worked at Ruby's clubs as bouncers or the like has been alleged by many. (94) DPD regulations forbid any offduty employment in places which serve liquor,(95) and almost all officers have denied participating in or having knowledge of this practice, as has Ruby. (96) Any misconceptions were explained by a common practice whereby special policemen were furrushed by the city (through the police department) to many Dallas clubs and taverns, which paid the city a set fee. The city in turn reimbursed the individual men involved. (97) These special officers were not part of the DPD, but were regulated by the special services bureau of the DPD, and wore a uniform similar to the police uniform. (98) Ruby has said that he used this service. (99)

  25. Ruby was seemingly able to enter DPD headquarters unnoticed and unchallenged, as was dramatically illustrated during the assassination weekend, when he was seen within and around headquarters several times on Friday night (100) and Saturday, (101) and of course on Sunday morning in the DPD basement. Dallas policemen have stated that Ruby was a frequent visitor to headquarters (102) and that he had "entree" to the building.(103) One Dallas nightclub owner told the FBI that it was common knowledge that Ruby spent time at headquarters almost every day.(104) Contradicting this, Lt. James Gilmore told the committee in 1978 that Ruby was not a constant visitor to headquarters and that he only came there in order to take care of business. (105) Vehement denials have followed inquiries to DPD personnel concerning Ruby's possible access to police files and information.(106)

    SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 24, 1963

  26. Ruby's access to headquarters and his friendly relationship with the Dallas police, regardless of its nature, has led to speculation that he received assistance in entering the police basement on Sunday morning, November 24. No person has been able or willing to state with certainty that he saw Ruby enter the basement. (107)

  27. The FBI (108) and the DPD (through a special investigative unit) (109) conducted inquiries into Ruby's entry. The Warren Commission was privy to these materials and itself interviewed numerous individuals. As a result, the Commission had information from virtually everyone involved in Oswald's transfer and everyone in the vicinity of the basement. (110) More information has been elicited in the 15 years since 1963 and during the course of the committee's investigation.

  28. The access route that the Warren Commission concluded was "probable" (111) and which the DPD investigative unit characterized as a "reasonable certainty" (112) was the route given by Ruby. during several, but not all, interviews after the shooting. (113) It begins with Ruby walking down Main Street, away from the Western Union office where he had just sent a money order to an employee, and toward the Main Street ramp entrance to the Dallas police basement. Ruby sensed the commotion and noticed a police car leaving the basement via the ramp. He saw a patrolman on guard at the ramp moving away from his post to direct the car into traffic. (114) While this occurred, he turned from the Main Street sidewalk into the ramp. Someone may have hollered at him in an attempt to stop him, but he ducked his head and kept going. (115) Moments later, he shot Lee Harvey Oswald. The basement may be diagramed as follows:


  29. The statements and testimony of the police officers directly involved did not corroborate Ruby's explanation. Patrolman Roy E. Vaughn was the officer assigned to guard the Main Street ramp entrance, and he stated that even when he stepped away from his position to assure the police car safe ingress to the street, he was still able to see the ramp, and saw nobody go down it at the time. (116) Patrolman Vaughn's assertion has not changed in 15 years. (117) He was deemed truthful in a polygraph examination given him several days after the Oswald shooting, when he averted that he had not knowingly let Ruby go down the ramp. (118) In his Warren Commission testimony, Chief Curry placed the blame for Ruby's entry on Patrolman Vaughn, but intimated that the error may have been inadvertent, that Ruby may have slipped by without Patrolman Vaughn's realizing it. (119)

  30. The recollections of other police witnesses contradict Ruby's entering from the ramp. Lt. Rio Samuel Pierce was the driver of the car on the ramp, and he stated he did not see Ruby and was unaware that anyone went down the ramp in the timespan. (120) Similarly, his two passengers, Sgt. James Putnam and Sgt. Billy Joe Maxey, did not notice any attempt by anyone to enter from the ramp(121); both men commented that the narrowness of the ramp would make it extremely difficult for a person to slip by when a car was exiting. (122) Both Lieutenant Pierce and Sergeant Putnam were "positive" that no one entered the ramp at this time. (123)

  31. Sgt. Don Flusche did not have any official assignments related to Oswald's transfer to the county jail, but he was standing diagonally across from the Main Street ramp on the opposite side of the street during the period in question. He told the committee in 1978 that he saw the car exit the ramp.(124) He also recalled the obvious commotion caused by the basement shooting. There was no doubt in his mind that Ruby, did not walk down the ramp and, further, did not walk down Main Street anywhere near the ramp. (125) His information was not known or considered by the Warren Commission or the DPD investigative unit. After learning of it in 1978, Capt. Jack Revill,(126) a member of the unit, stated, So if that be true, then maybe Ruby did not enter the basement that way. It tends to dispute the findings of the investigative team I was assigned to."

  32. Detective W. J. "Blackie" Harrison was standing in the basement and said that he saw Lieutenant Pierce's car go up the ramp and stop at the ramp entrance for a very short time. He did not see Ruby come down the ramp.(128) His response was deemed truthful when the Dallas Police Department administered a polygraph test to him. (129)

  33. Lieutenant Pierce, (130) Sergeant Maxey, (131) Detective Harrison(132.) and Sergeant Flusche(133) all knew Ruby by sight, which should reinforce their statements. Patrolman Vaughn had encountered Ruby several times on police business, (134) and told the Warren Commission in 1964 that he "knew" the man,(132) although he told the FBI in December 1963 that he doubted that he would recognize Ruby if he saw him on the street. (136) In 1977, Patrolman Vaughn told the committee that he definitely knew Ruby and would recognize him. (137)

  34. Several officers stationed in the basement have stated that during the period encompassing Lieutenant Pierce's departure and the Oswald shooting, they may have glanced toward the Main Street ramp at various times without consistently focusing on the area. None has said he saw Ruby or any other individual come down the ramp. (138)

  35. Civilian witnesses have also stated that nobody went down the ramp when Lieutenant Pierce's car drove out. Terrence McGarry, UPI reporter covering the transfer, told the FBI that he was at the bottom of the Main Street ramp, in the middle, and nobody came down the ramp during the 5 minutes preceding the shooting. (139)

  36. Harry Tasker, a cabdriver, had been hired by a reporter to wait outside the police station in readiness for a quick departure when Oswald was enroute to the county jail. Like Sergeant Flusche, Tasker was on Main Street, across from the ramp, and he declared that no one resembling Ruby entered the basement (via the ramp) in the 5 minutes before the shooting. (140)

  37. Napoleon J. Daniels, a former member of the Dallas Police Department,(141) had gone down to police headquarters at about 11:00 a.m. to watch the transfer of Oswald. He saw Patrolman Vaughn at the top of the Main Street ramp and, knowing him from his days on the force,(142) engaged him in conversation.(143) Following this, Daniels continued to watch the proceedings from a spot right off the ramp, on the side furthest from the Western Union office. (144) He stated that when Lieutenant Pierce's car came up the ramp, Patrolman Vaughn stepped away from his post, but no one slipped by to go down the ramp. (145)

  38. Daniels stated several times that he acted as a lookout at this time to insure that nobody entered the ramp, because Patrolman Vaughn was occupied with stopping the traffic. (146) In three 1963 interviews, however, Daniels said that an individual went down the ramp several minutes after Lieutenant Pierce's car had left and before the shooting. (147) In a 1978 Committee deposition, he again averred that an individual went down the ramp after the car had exited. (148) In his 1964 Warren Commission testimony, Daniels at first had stated that an individual walked down the ramp before the car came up, (149) but he changed this statement to after the car came up, when shown his previous statements. (150) Regardless of when it occurred, Daniels said that this person went right by Patrolman Vaughan, (151) without Vaughn trying to stop him. (152)

  39. In his 1978 committee deposition, Daniels was questioned concerning the identity of the individual going down the ramp:

    Q. Did this individual resemble anybody in particular?
    A. Well, there again, I didn't see his face that good. I saw the back of him and kind of the side, you know. I didn't recognize him. But I thought maybe he was some guy who had been down there before and was coming back, you know, to-there was newsmen all over the place down there.
    Q. Based on what. {lid you see of this individual, did he resemble Jack Ruby ?
    A. I didn't know Jack Ruby.
    Q. After that time did you see pictures of Jack Ruby in the newspapers and magazines ?
    A. Mm-hm. Yes, I did. And he did resemble the guy I'd seen go down in there.(153)

  40. This dialogue must be contrasted with Daniels' earlier statements. He had told the Warren Commission that he did not think the individual was Jack Ruby,(154) and prior to his Dallas Police Department polygraph test he stated that he was sure it was not Ruby. (155)

  41. The Warren Commission believed that Daniels' story "merits little credence."(156) Its reasons may have included the inconsistencies in Daniels' numerous statements and the problem posed by the time sequence% since it has been determined that only 55 seconds elapsed between the time Lieutenant Pierce's car cleared the crowd the bottom of the ramp and the fatal bullet. (157)

  42. Another civilian witness whose testimony was examined because the Warren Commission believed that it partially corroborated Ruby's narration(158) was James Turner, a WBAP-TV (Dallas) director. Turner told the Warren Commission that he saw Lieutenant Pierce's car going up the Main Street ramp and that about the same time he glanced toward the ramp and saw Ruby coming down it. (159) Turner did not know Ruby,(160) but he was certain that the individual he saw was the same man that shot Oswald. (161) He said that what distinguished Ruby from other men was his hat, which Turner described as felt, round on top, and with a wide (not a snap) brim. (162)

  43. Sylvia Meagher commented on this description in her book "Accessories After the Fact":

    Turner's description of the hat is completely inconsistent with the hat Ruby was wearing when he shot Oswald * * * That hat has a narrow brim, not a "pretty large one," and an ordinary top, not a "round" one. (163)

  44. More importantly, the point where Turner stated he saw Ruby is approximately two-thirds of the way down the ramp. Warren Commission counsel Leon D. Hubert, Jr. directed a number of questions during Turner's deposition toward the possibility that Ruby may not have come all the way down the ramp, but may have come from the garage area, crossed the railing dividing the parking area and the ramp at some point, and then continued down the ramp incline. (164) Turner admitted that he did not see Ruby prior to his being at that point well down the ramp and that because of the degree of the incline and a column which partially blocked his view, he could not see all the way to the top of the ramp. (165) This exchange was not mentioned in the Warren Commission report and casts serious doubt on the Commission's conclusion that Turner's testimony corroborates the ramp theory.

  45. Dallas Police Department reservist. W.J. Newman, said that he saw an individual coming down the Main Street ramp (and blending into the media crowd) about 1 minute before the shooting, just after a shout of "here he comes." (166) Newman could not identify the individual, other than to say that he was a white male. In 1978, he underscored his inability to identify him by declaring that he was only sure that it wasn't Santa Claus.(167) Newman also stated that the man had come down the ramp on the far (jail office) side,(168) a description that does not coincide with the Warren Commission's, which placed Ruby on the near side of the ramp. (169)

  46. Newman had been stationed on the Commerce Street side of the basement, guarding a door opening into the subbasement machincry area.*(170) As a result, his vision was somewhat obscured by the pillars in the basement parking lot,(171) as well as by the many people in the area.

  47. Newman's story should not have been used as corroboration of the Warren Commission conclusion, as was attempted. (172) In fact, Commission Counsel Burt Griffin explicitly did not believe Newman's testimony.(173) It lacked specificity and, like Turner's testimony, again failed to show that the person entered at the top of the ramp, rather than from within the basement area.

  48. The evidence is thus inconclusive, even dismissing Daniels' tale, as did the Warren Commission. (174) Eight witnesses stated that no one (much less Ruby) came down the ramp when Lieutenant Pierce's car left, while one witness (Ruby) stated that he did go down the ramp. The declarations of Newman and Turner can be variously interpreted.

  49. Given these contradictions, which have not yet been fully, explained, the investigative focus should have been on Ruby's story (a focus some did have, notably Burr Griffin) and whether he was credible, as well as whether the other witnesses were credible.

  50. Following the shooting, Ruby was pushed to the ground, disarmed and taken away. Sgt. Patrick T. Dean, who was believed to have been the man in charge of basement security,(175) was one of Ruby's subduers, having leap over a car to do so. (176)

  51. Difficulties have arisen with respect to who was with Ruby and where and what he told them. After a brief interludein the basement jail office, Ruby was escorted to the jail elevator and up to the fifth floor by a number of policemen, including Detectives Don Ray Archer, Barnard S. Clardy, Thomas D. McMillon, and Harrison and Capt. Glenn King.(177) Detective Harrison and Captain King departed almost immediately. (178) The rest were joined by Forrest Sorrels of the Secret Service and Sergeant Dean, who had brought Sorrels from the third floor on orders from Chief Curry.(179) At this time, the semiformal questioning of Ruby, who had been stripped,(180) began. Sorrels stayed only 5 to 7 minutes(181) and then left. C. Ray Hall of the FBI continued the interrogation for several hours. (182) Detectives Archer, Clardy and McMillon were present throughout the period,(183) albeit leaving the room for short intervals; Sergeant Dean left before or just as Hall began the questioning.

  52. Sergeant Dean and Detectives Archer,(184) Clardy (185) and McMiIlon(186) said they heard Ruby say, at some point during this sequence, that he had entered the basement when Lieutenant Pierce's car exited. Sorrels never heard that statement. (187)'Shortly thereafter, Ruby refused to tell Hall and then Captain Fritz the details of how he got in. (188) He also refused to answer questions about his means of access when the FBI interviewed him November 25(189) and then when DPD Lt. Jack Revill interviewed him on December 1 and 3, 1963.(190) During an FBI interview on December 21, 1963, however, he returned to the theory accepted by the Warren Commission,(191) as was the case in a sworn deposition taken after his trial. (192)
    *See figure 1, par. 601.

  53. These changes of mind have aroused suspicion and required a closer look at the statements of Detectives Archer, Clardy and McMillon and of Sergeant Dean. Sergeant Dean had told the Warren Commission in 1964 that, following the shooting, he trailed the group taking Ruby into the jail office and then returned to the basement area where he was interviewed by several television reporters.(193) He then went to the third floor where he encountered Chief Curry and Sorrels, following which he went to the fifth floor where the questioning was to take place.

  54. Dean stated that immediately after Sorrels finished his questioning, he (Dean) asked Ruby how he got in, as Sorrels had failed to make this inquiry, and that Ruby replied he had come down the Main Street ramp when Lieutenant Pierce's car drove out. (194) Sorrels did not remember hearing anything of this nature(195) and told Griffin that Ruby may have told Sergeant Dean how he got in the basement, but Sorrels did not remember hearing it nor does it show up in his notes. (196)

  55. There is another dispute concerning whether Sorrels was still on the fifth floor when Sergeant Dean made his inquiry. Sorrels told the Warren Commission that he had left after questioning Ruby (197) and that he left alone, without Dean. (198) Further, Dean's statements have been inconsistent. (199) In 1964, he said that he could not recall whether Sorrels had been present when he asked this question. (200) But in 1977 he stated that Sorrels was present. (201) He also told the Warren Commission that he and Sorrels departed the fifth floor together. (202) Yet during a 1964 meeting of Dean, Sorrels, and Dallas District Attorney Henry Wade, Dean refuted Sorrels' statement that he did not hearby Ruby's access explanation by saying that Ruby must have spoken after Sorrels had left. (203)

  56. Detective Archer stated that he heard Ruby recite the ramp theory in answer to Dean's inquiry. (204) Detective McMillon said that he too, heard it when the question was asked, but did not know who had posed the question. (205) Detective Clardy originally remarked that he had heard the response at some point in the proceedings when he personally asked Ruby how he got in (he did not mention Sergeant Dean). (206) On the other hand, Clardy told the committee that he did not ask Ruby any questions. Rather, he only heard Ruby's general remarks made to others on the fifth floor. (207) When FBI Agent C. Ray Hall asked about the entry later that day, Ruby "did not wish to say how he got into the basement or at what time he entered."(208) At least two of the detectives were still present at this time,(209) and they did not speak up to relate what they had heard from Ruby earlier. (210)

  57. Detectives Archer, Clardy and McMillon all failed to report, immediately Ruby's Main Street ramp explanation to their DPD superiors(211) despite its obvious importance. Detective McMillon's original report of November 27, 1963, to Chief Curry did not mention Ruby's statement (212), although his December 4, 1963, FBI interview did. (213) When asked by the Warren Commission why this information was not included in his original report, McMillon said, "Well, I couldn't possibly have mentioned everything that I knew about the deal here. I just didn't mention it, I didn't think anything about it being important at all at the time."(214) Detective Clardy did not report Ruby's statements until November 30, 1963 ;(215) no explanation has come forward for his belated action. Detective Archer first mentioned Ruby's statements on December 1, 1963. (216)

  58. Sergeant Dean told the Warren Commission that he notified Lieutenant Fierce of what Ruby had told him sometime Sunday afternoon,(217) and that Pierce informed Capt. Cecil Talbert. (218) Dean also stated that he did not talk with Patrolman Vaughn the rest of the day,(219) but moments later, when asked the same question, he stated that he did speak to Patrolman Vaughn on the second floor of headquarters, with Lieutenant Pierce present and possibly Captain Talbert. (220)

  59. Although these factual inconsistencies may be insignificant, Griflin, among others,(221) was greatly disturbed by the entire situation involving Ruby's story--when he told it and to whom--and let his feelings be known, particularly when questioning Dean.

  60. In 1977, Dean described the issue with Griffin to committee investigators. He remarked that at one point while Griffin was questioning him, they went off the record, and Griffin told Dean that two reports he had submitted to the DPD were not true(222) and that Ruby had not told him that he had come in via the Main Street ramp. (223) Dean had expressed shock to Griffin and said he would not answer any more questions. He also stated that when he went to Washington, D.C., Chief JustiCe Warren personally apologized for Griffin's conduct and vindicated Dean. (224)

  61. It is clear that Dean is a key figure. He seems to have appeared every time something important was taking place. In addition to being in charge of basement security, he was at Parkland Memorial Hospital on Friday (Ruby was reportedly there) and on the fifth floor of headquarters during Ruby's initial interrogation. A Texas appellate court ruled that his testimony should not have been admitted in Ruby's trial and resulted in his conviction being overturned.(225) His confrontation with Griffin created serious problems within the Warren Commission and was partially responsible for the curtailment and restriction of the Ruby part of the investigation. (226)

  62. On May 28, 1964, Dean sent a letter to Chief Curry requesting that he be allowed to take a polygraph examination and suggesting 16 questions. (227) Sometimes later, Dean was administered a polygraph test by Officer P.L. Bentley. Dean admitted in 1978 that he had failed the examination. (228) This information had never been transmitted to the Warren Commission. Nor was the committee able to find a copy of the actual questions and results or a copy of the DPD polygraph log for 1964. (229).

  63. The committee was unable to arrange a convenient date for deposing Dean, and he refused to respond to written interrogatorice sent him in the form of a sworn affidavit. (230).

  64. Some of Griffin's concerns seemed to emanate from two inquiries:1) Why did Ruby initially explain his access and then subsequently refuse to do so? 2) Could aspects of Ruby's story have originated with things said to him by others.? (231)

  65. Ruby may have become silent on the fifth floor after his initial statements because he was suddenly in the presence of strangers, particularly Hall of the FBI.(232) When he was apprehended in the basement, transported via the elevator and initially questioned on the fifth floor, he was among his best friends, "Dallas police officers," and there would be no reason not to explain what had just occurred. Tom Howard, the first of many attorneys to counsel Ruby, said that his hesitancy was the result of his not wanting to get a Dallas police officer and friend in trouble. Ruby himself gave this explanation to Lieutenant Revill on December 1, 1963.(233) Griffin suggested that Ruby did not wish to finger anybody on the force out of fear of possible revenge. (234) At some point, Ruby may have also been advised by. legal counsel not to discuss how he entered the basement, a reason which he a]so mentioned to Lieutenant Revill.(235)

  66. Clearly, Ruby's story contained details that indicated a knowledge of activity on Main Street landscape that morning. He knew that a patrolman was guarding the ramp entrance, (236) he recognized the driver of the police car as Lieutenant Pierce, and he stated that the patrolman had to guide this car into the traffic. These facts were undisputed, and Ruby was aware of them. Therefore, even if the conclusion of the Warren Commission is not believed, it appears that Ruby was either near the Main Street ramp entrance less than a minute before the shooting or he was apprised of these details by someone else.

  67. Both of these possibilities are supportable. Shortly after leaving the Western Union office, Ruby would have been close enough to see the activities at the top of the Main Street ramp (237) and then take another route to the basement. He would have been close enough if he were within the basement, positioned on or just off the ramp when Lieutenant Pierce's car drove up, to see, even if only partially, the events taking place at the top of the ramp. Further, amid the incredible confusion following the shooting, bits and pieces of names (i.e., Lieutenant Pierce) and events may have come to his attention.

  68. One possibility, suggested by Griffin,(238) is that Dean told Ruby what to say in order to protect his reputation and esteem, since he was one of the men in charge of security in the basement and Ruby's entrance might have been blamed on him. Dean stated that as Ruby was being subdued he (Dean) first said, "Jack, goddam." Ruby then said, "Dean, I'm sorry, I'm sorry." Dean's rejoinder was, "Man you got me in one hell of a shape," (239) inferring that Dean was immediately aware of his personal predicament.

  69. It is possible that Dean went to the third floor (where he met Chief Curry and Sorrels) to find Ruby, as Griffin has suggested.(240) Dean explained that he went there because he wished to speak to a superior officer about the extent of the information concerning Ruby's identity which would be proper to disclose to the media. (241) Subsequently, he found Ruby on the fifth floor and had an opportunity to talk to him. According to Griffin, "Ruby, being cultivator of police favor and not being desirous of incurring the wrath of the police department, might well have taken the hint from Dean."(242) At least one person on the fifth floor indicated that Ruby-Dean conversation could have taken place privately.(243)

  70. Other theories of how Ruby could have gotten into the basement have been voiced. Of these, four can be supported to some extent.

  71. The first is the obvious possibility that some officer let Ruby in the basement, as had been done normally at other times that weekend (244) and over the years. (245) Jack Ruby's relationship with the DPD would have distinguished him from most other citizens, and until Oswald was shot, his presence would have been innocuous and could have been ignored. Theodore Fleming, a DPD officer for 8 years (he left in March 1963), told the FBI that there was a "good likelihood" that any officer acquainted with Ruby would have allowed him in the building if Ruby had requested permission to do so.(246) There was, however, no evidence to support this theory although the committee reasoned that no one would be likely to admit letting Ruby in if he had done so.

  72. A second theory involves a press pass--Ruby might have gotten through a security checkpointby flashing media identification. (247) This theory has been fueled by Eva Grant's comment that Ruby had some sort of press card,(248) by Ruby's own comments during the weekend (particularly on Friday night when he was seen at headquarters with a note pad and pen) (249) that he was coveting the assassination for the Jewish press,(250) and by the testimony of DPD reservist Harold B. Holly, Jr.

  73. Holly was assigned to Parkland Hospital following the shooting to assist with the handling of traffic there. He stated that he had met another reservist there, identity unknown, and that they had engaged in conversation. The unknown reservist said that either he had let Ruby in the basement or had seen someone else do it, and that Ruby was wearing press identification on his jacket. (251)

  74. Holly's story contained a number of inconsistencies. In a December 1, 1963, interview with Lieutenant Revill, Holly declared that the unknown reservist let Ruby in and did not mention that the reservist had also said he might have seen Ruby being let in by someone else.(252) Then, in a December 7, 1963, FBI interview, Holly added third possibility: that the reservist merely said that he had seen Ruby in the basement. (253)

  75. During his December 1, 1963, DPD interview, Holly was shown photographs of several reserve officers. The report on this interview stated that he was not able to identify the unknown reservist. (254) Yet Holly told the FBI that he had picked out one of the photographs as possibly being a good likeness.(255) The most likely prospect for the unknown reservist was W.J. Newman, because he had recalled the man coming down the Main Street ramp. (256) In addition, he was at Parkland Hospital on Sunday after noon and might have been there at the same time as Holly. In fact, Capt. J.M. Solomon, who displayed the photographs to Holly, stated that Newman's picture was chosen by Holly. Yet Captain Solomon told the Warren Commission that "he [Holly] is confused * * * his statements were so general, such a general nature, and when I showed him the pictures he was unable to positively identify them." (257)

  76. Newman stated that he did not tell anyone at the hospital of what he saw, since he believed it to be insignificant. (258) To add to the confusion, Lieutenant Revill said that Holly did choose one picture, but that the reservist he chose, when interviewed, was out fishing on Sunday and not at Parkland Hospital. (259)

  77. Besides Holly's lack of credibility,(260) the basic problem with the press theory is that Ruby did not have any press passes on his person when apprehended,(261) and he told the FBI he did not have any sort of press card or other identification on the outside of his coat, nor did he show any identification to gain entry to the basement.(262) No discarded press badges were found within the basement, (263) and since many officers knew Ruby, the ruse of a reporter would not have worked with them.

  78. The third theory--that of the television camera--states that Ruby assumed the disguise of a television technician or helper and entered the basement by helping to push a camera into place. Two DPD members, Detectives Roy Lee Lowery and Wilbur Jay Cutchshaw, have mentioned this possibility.

  79. Detective Lowery stated that approximately 3 to 5 minutes before the shooting, he was not sure if it was before or after Lieutenant Pierce's car went up the ramp, although Detective Harrison recalled hearing Lowery say that it was just prior to Pierce's departure,(264) he saw three men with their heads down, coming through the double doors in front of the jail office with a television camera on a tripod and dolly (it was from WPAB, Dallas). The camera was never actually used, and after the shooting Lowery noticed that only two men were moving it away. Detective Cutchshaw had independently noticed the same thing. Both detectives talked to the two known members of thetelevision crew, who said that there had only been two men pushing the camera originally and that they knew nothing about a third. Lowery and Cutchshaw therefore inferred that Ruby had been the third man, (265)

  80. Joseph Goulden, a reporter, wrote an article in a Philadelphia newspaper stating that he was told by an "unimpeachable law enforcement source that Ruby got in the basement with the assistance of a local television cameraman, while carrying television equipment into the basement. (266) When interviewed by the FBI Goulden said that his source got the story from Ruby himself and that the cameraman in question was Jack Renfro. also of WBAP-TV. (267)

  81. Both cases seemed to be implausible. The explanation for the trio seen by Lowery and Cutchshaw is that the two men who were originally moving the camera (identified as Dave Timmona and John Tankersley) were having difficulty balancing the equipment. Another WBAP employee, the aforementioned James Turner, who was stationed with a second WBAP camera already in place in the basement, came over to help. (268) Further, Detectives H.L. McGee and D.G. Brantley were with this camera coming down in the elevator to the basement, and they said that Ruby was not present, that only Tankersley and Timmona were moving the camera. It is also unlikely that Ruby would have used this route because the camera was moved approximately 4 minutes before the shooting, which would correspond with the time at which Ruby was leaving Western Union.(269) Finally, and most important, Renfro, the cameraman, stated that Goulden was at Parkland Hospital at the time of the Oswald shooting. (270)

  82. Last is the alley theory. The alley in question is situated between the Western Union office and the DPD headquarters, running from Main Street to Commerce Street.

  83. In the middle of the alley is a door leading to the first floor of the municipal building.(271) (The municipal building contains both the city hall and the police building. At the street level, the building is divided, although on all other floors it is solid. ) Once inside the door off the alley and in the first floor corridor of the municipal building, a person would normally be able to reach the DPD basement parking lot by either elevator or a fire escape stairway. The stairway has doors at the first floor and the basement. If Ruby had left Western Union and started to walk down Main Street toward Patrolman Vaughn's position, he would have passed the alley and had access to the building.

  84. Although Commission counsels Hubert and Griffin indicated an awareness of the alley in questioning the witnesses, (272) the Warren Commission Report does not mention this possible route.(273) Further, the special DPD investigative unit did not consider it at all.(274)

  85. The possibility that Ruby entered via the alley, went down the stairs,(275) and through the basement door is logistically attractive. Through his knowledge of Dallas police headquarters, Ruby may have been aware of the alley, the stairs ,and the door, and this mode of entry would have been much less conspicuous than the others. It would have enabled Ruby to get in position without having to pass very many persons, since the route went through a fairly empty parking lot in the basement.(276) Further, most, if not all, people were probably focusing on the area nearest to the jail office and ramps, awaiting Oswald's appearance. This path would also have taken Ruby across the garage area and through a railing at a point near the bottom of the Main Street ramp.(277) With respect to timing, Ruby could have entered the basement via this route in the 4 minutes that elapsed between his visit to Western Union and the shooting.(278) On June 26, 1964, an FBI agent walked through the route (including going through the railing near the bottom of the ramp) in response to a request from the Warren Commission; he found that it required 189 steps and 2 minutes and 25 seconds. (279)

  86. Although there were at least three doors along this route, it was possible that they were not or could not be secured. The Warren Commission noted that there were doubts about whether the door at the bottom of the fire escape was secured. (280) John O. Servance, the head porter for these buildings in 1963, said that even when the door at the bottom of the fire escape is locked in such a way as to prevent egress from the basement, a person could still open it from within the stairwell. (281) This was corroborated by two other maintenance employees, Edward Pierce and Louis McKinzie.(282)

  87. Sergeant Dean stated that both he and Sergeant Putnam checked the door prior and found it to be locked from the basement side. When asked by Griffin if he knew that it could still be opened from the inside, Dean at first had no response. (283) Then he said he believed that he and Sergeant Putnam had asked a maintenance man (identity unknown) about this door, and this individual locked it so that a key would be necessary regardless of which side it was to be opened from,(284) contradicting the testimonies of McKinzie and Servance.

  88. Capt. Cecil Talbert's Warren Commission testimony indicated that he did not check this door while he was checking other doors in the area since the usual procedure was to have this door locked at all times after 6 p.m. and always on weekends, and he assumed this was the case. (285)

  89. Edward E. Pierce, also a building maintenance employee, stated that the door leading from the alley into the first floor was constructed in such a manner that it had to be locked from the outside every time an individual left the building in tiffs fashion. Otherwise it would remain open. Pierce said that on Sunday. morning the door was probably opened and closed several times prior to the shooting because the porters were working and needed to get into the alley.. (286) Capt. William Westbrook, a member of the DPD special investigative unit, indicated in 1978 that the alley door was not checked that morning (287) (although his basis for this statement was not clear).

  90. Setvance reiterated the mechanics of the alley door to the Warren Commission and added that the third door at issue--the one leading from the first floor corridor to the fire escape stairwell--was also unlocked all the time. (288)

  91. At the very least, this information raises the possibility that the alley door was left open, albeit inadvertently, and that if Ruby had gone through this door, he would then have been able to continue to the basement without locked barricades. Additionally, security at the relevant point in the basement was not airtight. Patrolman Alvin R. Brock had been assigned to watch the door leading from the fire escape and the nearby elevator doors, but he was reassigned by Sergeants Putnam and Dean at 10:45 a.m. (289) Brock had assumed that reservist located in the immediate vicinity would watch these spots. (290)

  92. Brock's reassignment was not unique; other basement personnel, as well as previously unassigned officers and reservists,(291) were given new traffic duties around this time. For instance, Reserve Patrolman G.E. Worley, Jr., was originally assigned to the garage area and was supposed to keep cars from parking in the first two places on the north side of the parking area. He was reassigned between 10:45 and 11 a.m.,(292) which took yet another man out of the area.*

  93. The reassignments were the result of a change in the transfer plans. The idea of transporting Oswald in an armored car via Elm Street was dismissed in favor of a route along Main Street, with Oswald in a regular police car. Traffic reassignments became necessary,(293) and Sergeant Dean was so notified by Capt. Talbert.(294) The men originally assigned along Elm Street were reassigned, and several other policemen, such as Officers Brock and Worley, were moved out of the basement, even though nobody knew when Oswald would be transferred.
    * See fig. 2, par. 602.

  94. During its investigation of the Oswald shooting, the Dallas Police Department drew up a schematic diagram of the basement, with each person labeled with a number.(295) On this chart, a notation shows that Worley was reassigned at 11 a.m.. Brock at 10:15 a.m. An individual labeled as number 57 is depicted as being at the top of the Main Street ramp. (along with Vaughn and Daniels); another notation states that this person was reassigned at 11 a.m. The key for the diagram does not include a number 57, and the committee did not know who this individual was.

  95. Reservist Newman told the Warren Commission that immediately prior to the shooting, there were only two security men in the garage area: himself, located on the far side of the railing next to Chief Curry's parking area, and a regular officer nearby the first aid station in the basement. (296) Patrolman Brock stated that when he left the basement at 10:45 a.m., he noticed the reservist that he had mentioned previously and another reservist in the garage area nearby the bottom of the ramps. (297)

  96. Although Ruby denied the use of the alley when given a polygraph examination,(298) the question was ambiguous as to exactly what "alleyway" meant. The Warren Commission stated that it did not rely on the results of this examination,(299) and an expert committee, panel refused to make any conclusions concerning the test because the procedures used in 1964 were of such poor quality. (300)

  97. While other theories are possible involving other entrances to the building, the evidence seems to indicate that they should be judged unlikely, (301) given the timing and the lack of witnesses with information to support them. (302)

  98. Several miscellaneous considerations concerning the "abortive transfer"(303) should be mentioned. The number of media persons with their investigative curiosities and aggressiveness, compounded by their equipment, created mass confusion in the basement that Sunday morning. Captain Fritz characterized the news media as a mob,(304) Detective C.N. Dhority's term was "bedlam."(305) They had disregarded Dallas Police Department instructions to stay behind the railings on the far side of the ramps (from the jail office); they had moved forward in a "general surge" (306) when Oswald's appearance was imminent. This situation might have aided Ruby's entry by providing a distraction. It would also have given Ruby "some concealment after he entered the basement," (307) essentially precluding his being stopped before the shooting

  99. Additionally, the large number of media necessarily blocked the vision of some Dallas Police Department personnel, (308) as did the lights needed by the television cameras to insure a clear Picture:(309) lights described as "blinding."(310) Detective Harrison specifically remarked that it would have been difficult to recognize a man coming down the Main Street ramp duo to the glare m your face." (311)

  100. The evidence available indicates that Jack Ruby did not come down the Main Street ramp when Lieutenant Pierce's car exited. The weight of the eyewitness evidence belies this route, and the testimony of various witnesses who supported this route was often inconsistent and inconclusive. Further, the fact that 55 seconds had elapsed between the time the police car cleared the crowd at the bottom of the ramp and the moment of the shooting militates against the Main Street ramp route. This interval would had to have included driving the car up the ramp, hesitation at the ramp entrance before pulling out into the street, Ruby's walk down the ramp(312) and his momentarily positioning himself behind Detective Harrison's shoulder before darting out to shoot Oswald (a movement which is evident from the video tapes and photographs of the incident). (313) While this amount of action is possible m that time, it is improbable.

  101. The alley route was the most likely alternative because of the factors of time and distance, the lack of security in the garage area and along the entire route, and the testimony concerning the security at the doors along the route. This possibility was not considered or investigated by the FBI or the Dallas Police Department and was virtually ignored by the Warren Commission.

  102. However Ruby got into the basement, there was no concrete evidence to show that he received any assistance in doing so from a Dallas Police Department member(314) or anyone else. Ruby. himself denied receiving any assistance. (315) The coincidence of the timing of his visit to Western Union and the shooting seems to preclude any of the assistance theories,(316) as did the uncertainty of officials as to exactly when and how Oswald would be transferred. Chief Curry said that there was no possible way for anyone to have known when Oswald was to be moved, including Chief Curry himself.(317) These factors made warnings or signals highly improbable.

  103. Nevertheless, the timing was so perfect that it made it difficult to accept mere coincidence, and it is unlikely that Ruby entered the basement without some-sort of assistance. This might have been in the form of knowledge of the Oswald transfer plans, direct help in entering the basement, or direct help in both entering and shooting Oswald.(318)


  105. Figure 2


  106. It has been alleged that in 1946 Jack Ruby was involved in an attempt to bribe Dallas Sheriff-elect Steve Guthrie. This bribery attempt did in fact occur and involved several Chicago organized crime figures, but Ruby's involvement has never been established. The committee believed it important to reexamine the documents and files relating to this event to determine if Ruby had been involved and if he was associated with the participants.


  107. In June 1946, Steve Guthrie won the Democratic primary elect on for Sheriff of Dallas County and was to take office in January 1947. (319) The District Attorney also was retiring, and a "reform" candidate, Will Wilson, was taking office.(320) According to Paul Roland Jones, (321) prior to this time illegal operations had been carried on with the consent of Sheriff Smoot Schmid and various members of the Dallas Police Department. (322) Jones stated that it would be impossible to operate illegal operations under the new administration, so he made plans to discontinue his activities. (323) Prior to this he had, however, made an effort to arrange the continuation of his illegal activities under the new administration.

  108. On October 29 or 31, 1946, Jones called Dallas Police Detective George Butler and asked him to arrange a meeting with Sheriff-elect Steve Guthrie. (324) Subsequently Butler asked Guthrie if he would assist the police department with its investigation of Jones' activities. (325) Guthrie agreed, on the condition that recordings be made of his conversations with Jones.(326) Butler agreed, and arrangements were made with the Texas Rangers to have the meetings recorded. Thereafter, Guthrie and Butler met with Jones on several occasions. Some of Jones' associates also were present at several of the meetings.

  109. The committee obtained the original recordings of these meetings. It also acquired partial transcriptions of the recordings and Butler's detailed notes.

  110. The following sequence of events has been developed from the review of these documents.**

  111. Jones and Guthrie met for the first time on November 1, 1946.(327) During their conversation, Jones mentioned some people from Chicago who had moved to Dallas--Marcus Lipsky, James Weinberg, Paul Labriola, Julian Breakstone, Lou Schneider, and Jimmy Barcella. Jones also discussed the opening of a club in Dallas and stated:

    Here is my proposition to you. You pick a man, a local man, we will put him in business. We will rent him a building but we will finance it We will put in some juke boxes, some marble tables, some sort of slot machines. We will get him a mechanic and a pickup truck. We will start hustling getting him some locations, legitimately, no muscles attached. Somebody that you trust. if you trust him, I trust him. We will furnish him all the slot machines, marble tables, punchboards, et cetera. We will operate and there will be only one gambling house in the county. (328)

    *Prepared by Donald A. Purdy, Jr., senior staff counsel, and Leslie H. Wizelman, staff researcher.
    **Jones and Butler had several meetings during this period which offered nothing pertinent to the resolution of this issue, and they, therefore, are not discussed.

    Jones also stated they would bring in only one man from Chicago, "who is capable of stopping the money."(329). Jones described the man as looking like a preacher and being neither a "dago" nor a Jew. (330) The other people would be local people, naming as examples Bob Fletcher, Tom Cooley, and Sherman Little. (331)

  112. On November 3, 1946, Jones called Butler from Chicago and told him that two headmen from the syndicate and two others from Las Vegas, Nev. would be arriving in Dallas on November 5, 1946.(332) on November 5, 1946, Jones and Jack Knapp registered at the Adolphus Hotel in Dallas.(333) Jones introduced Butler to Knapp and informed Butler that his other men, including "their big lawyer from Chicago," would be in Dallas the next day. (334) According to Butler's notes:

    Jones talked about buying the Chicken Bar at Fort Worth cut off and Industrial Boulevard for $185,000. The money to came from his people and the place Co be converted into a gambling club and night spot. He said other locations were discussed but this was the perfect location.(335)

    Jones also stated that:

    After things were going smoothly he would take off and leave the operation in the hands of an equally experienced man who has been here for some time [Harry Hornstein]. (336)

  113. On November 6, 1946, Jones and Knapp met Guthrie and Butler at Guthrie's home; this meeting was also recorded. (337) That evening, Pat Manning arrived in Dallas, and another meeting was arranged for November 7, 1946. (338) Jones, Knapp, Manning, Guthrie, and Butler were present at the November 7 meeting. Manning identified himself as being involved in the policy business in Chicago. (339) A teletype, dated November 8, 1946, from the Chicago FBI office, advised that Manning was believed to be Pat Manno, "who is in actuality a member of the Chicago syndicate and close friend of Joe Batters," also known as Anthony Accardo, a leader in the Chicago syndicate. (340)

  114. According to Butler, the November 7 meeting included discussions of:

    various problems in connections with fixing the various people involved.... It was indicated that already in the bag were: Al Templeton, Gonzales, Will Wilson and that the city would be an easy changeover, come the April election. (341)

  115. The subject of the "local man" who would serve as a front man came up again during the conversation. Manning asked Jones if the man had been chosen. Knapp responded, "Well, we've got a lot of prospects. We have got a half dozen."(342) Later in the discussion Manning said they were not going to bring any people from Chicago into this arrangement, relying instead entirely on "local fellows." (343) Specific names of the local participants were not mentioned. There was also some discussion of undesirable characters in Dallas, including Lois Green, Johnnie Grissaffi, Junior Thomas, Mac Barnes, Monk Wright, Bennie Binion, and AI Meadows.(344)

  116. Jones and Knapp left Dallas for Chicago on November 8, 1946. (345) On November 14, 1946. Jones called Butler from Syracuse, N.Y., and advised he was going to New York City and then to Chicago, where a meeting of the Chicago syndicate was planned for November 18, 1946. (346) This meeting was allegedly for the purpose of mulating plans for moving into gambling activities in Dallas.(347) Toll records indicate Jones was in Syracuse from November 13, 1946 to November 24, 1946. (348) On November 20, 1946, Jones again called Butler from New York City and advised he had been in Chicago but had since returned to New York. (349) He said he was leaving New York for Chicago and would be in Dallas in 1 or 2 days. (350)

  117. On November 23, 1946, Jones and Knapp arrived in Dallas.(351) Butler met them at the Adolphus Hotel.(352) Butler again met with Jones on November 25, 1946. (353) Jones informed Butler that the man with him at the Adolphus Century Room on November was Bob Fletcher and that "Bob was ready to go. So were Johnny Andrews, Chilton, Day, and Little." (354) Jones returned to Chicago on November 26, 1946. (355)

  118. On December 2, 2946, Jones returned to Dallas and again spoke with Butler. (356) He told Butler that Knapp would be in Dallas the next day. (357) He also said that Pete Strance and Bill Bundy, local Dallas characters, had recently been in Chicago and contacted Eddie Vogel, stating that they had "put up $168,000 to elect Jester for Governor and Guthrie for Sheriff and they had been given Dallas County."(358) They offered Vogel part of the "take" If he would finance them and return their $168,000. (359) According to Butler:

    This declaration by these men was made at about the same time Paul Jones made his. Paul was with Vogel and Manning at the time he last called Butler from Chicago. As a result of this other proposition, coming from a fairly reliable source, Paul says his people are a little cold and willing to wait until Steve gets set before they start moving. (360)

  119. On December 4, 1946, Butler told Jones to keep away from Dallas until after "the round up of the outside racketeers in Dallas," but Jones decided not to leave Dallas. (361) On December 12, 1946, Butler visited Jones and was introduced to two men identified as Murray Humphreys and Jake Guzik, Chicago syndicate leaders. (362) Handwritten notes next to Butler's notes stated that these two individuals were not actually Humphreys and Guzik. Later in his notes, Butler said that Dominic Joseph Blasi was the man introduced to him as Murray Humphreys. (363)

  120. Jones, Butler and Guthrie met again on December 13, 1946. (364) Jones said Pat Manning's real name was Pat Manno, Jack Knapp's real name, Jack Nitti. (365) According to Butler, Jones gave Guthrie some money and stated that Knapp and some of the other people would be in Dallas next week and there would be "one last meeting." (366)

  121. On December 18, 1946, Butler contacted Jones who advised that Knapp and "another man from Chicago" were in Dallas, (367) Jones also stated he was going to bring his local representatives, Jesse Chilton, to the meeting with Guthrie in the afternoon. (368)

  122. During the evening of December 18, Jones was arrested along with Don Blaski, alias Dominic Joseph Biasi, and Knapp, alias Romeo Jack Nitti. (369) Jesse Chilton was also arrested. (370) According to Butler, charges were filed against everyone but Blasi. (371) They were charged with attempted bribery of elected officials and held without bond.(372) In 1947, Jones was convicted of attempted bribery and released on appeal bond. (373)


    Treatment by the Warren Commission

  123. The FBI reviewed the transcripts of the recordings of the meetings, but not the actual recordings. (374) It was noted in the report that some of the recordings had been inaudible and a detailed transcription had been impossible to make.(375) Consequently, the recordings had not been fully transcribed, but merely summarized. (376) Following its review of these transcriptions, the FBI concluded that they failed to disclose any mention of Jack Ruby.(377)

  124. The FBI also interviewed George Butler, who stated, according to the FBI report of the interview:

    Ruby was not involved in the bribery attempt. In fact he had never heard of Ruby until after the investigation and trial had been completed. He [Butler] stated the way Ruby came into the picture was a number of individuals who were involved in the bribery attempt and in particular Paul Roland Jones began "hanging" out at Ruby's club after the sentence.(378)

  125. Carl F. Hansson, who was chief of police in Dallas during 1946, was also interviewed. He stated that during the Jones investigation he had "on several occasions" read the transcripts of the recordings taken of the various interviews, and he did not recall the name Ruby ever being mentioned. He stated that "he positively does not think that the name of Jack Ruby ever came up in the recorded interviews of Jones by Guthrie and Butler." (379)

  126. The FBI report of Steve Guthrie's interview provides the following version of Ruby's involvement:

    Jack Ruby at that time was a "small time peanut" with this group who were going to bribe Guthrie. Ruby's name came up on numerous occasions, according to Guthrie, as being the person who would take over a very fabulous restaurant at Industrial and Commerce Streets in Dallas. The floor of that building was to be a regular restaurant and the upper floor would be used for gambling. Ruby was to run this club. Jack Ruby never in person talked with Guthrie about this matter and, in fact, Guthrie and Ruby had no conversation during this investigation. However, according to Guthrie, Ruby's name constantly came up as being the person who would run the restaurant and Guthrie said if the records can still be heard, Ruby's name will be heard on numerous occasions. (380)

  127. Two Chicago reporters also indicated they had information that Ruby was involved m the bribery case. Frank Kiernan, special assistant to the U.S. attorney in Chicago, received the information from Jack Wilner, a crime reporter for the Chicago Daily News. (381) Wilner had stated that Ruby was reportedly involved in 1947 with Nick de John, Paul Labriola, Marcus Lipsky, and Jones in an effort to take over gambling in the Texas area. (382) Morton William Newman, also a reporter from the Chicago Daily News, stated he had heard from George Butler that Ruby was involved in an attempt to bribe Guthrie. (383) lie was also advised that Ruby was particularly close friend of Jones. (384)

  128. When interviewed by the FBI, Jones stated, according to the interview report:

    * * * He had never mentioned the name of Jack Ruby, and that he could be sure of this, because he had never heard of Jack Ruby at this time. He said that he is sure that neither Manno nor Nappi had mentioned Ruby during conversations and negotiations with Butler and Guthrie, as Jones was present at all of them. He stated in addition the conversations had not had to do with exactly who would be operating in the Dallas area, and thus there would have been no occasion for discussion of Ruby or anyone else as a person who was to operate a restaurant at Industrial and Commerce Streets. (385)

  129. Jack Ruby did, in fact, know Jones. The Warren Commission states that Ruby was friendly with "numerous underworld figures" and included Jones among them. (386) It appears, however, that Ruby did not meet Jones until after Jones was arrested for the bribery attempt and released on appeal bond.

  130. When Jack Ruby was interviewed by Federal narcotics agents in October 1947, he stated he had known Jones for the. past or 5 months. (387) He had been introduced to him by his sister, but had never spoken to him in Chicago. (388) In 1963 interview, Ruby stated he met Paul Jones in 1947 "at the Silver Spur, it was the Singapore Club first, on Ervay Street here in Dallas." (389)

  131. Eva Grant stated in her testimony before the Warren Commission that she was introduced to Jones by Dr. Weldon Duncan. (390) When asked by the Warren Commission if Jones knew Ruby, she responded, "If he did--no; I doubt if he ever even heard of him * *., and "I don't think he has ever seen him--well, wait a minute, he may have seen the man or heard about him."(391) Grant was then asked if Ruby knew Jones at the time of Jones' narcotics case (fall of 1947). She responded:

    I don't think he ever saw him as far as I know, but I want to tell you that Paul Roland Jones went to Chicago during the period of those 6 months and he did meet my brother Hyman. I don't know what conversation my brother had--my brother thought he was a nice guy--we didn't know anything about his background. (392)

  132. When Hyman Rubenstein was asked if Jack Ruby knew Jones, he replied, "He never met Jones. I met Jones through Eva."(393)

  133. Jones provided yet a different version of his introduction to Ruby. He stated that following his conviction in 1947, he was released on appeal bond and met Dr. Duncan and Eva Grant in Dallas. (394) A short time later, he went to Chicago and was in the company of Paul Labriola, James Weinburg, and possibly Danny Lardino.(395)

    The FBI report on the interview with Jones contains the following:

    They had been in the Congress Hotel to see a man there and met Ruby, whom Jones did not at that time know, coming across the lobby of the hotel. Those with Jones had addressed Ruby by name and introduced him to Jones. (396)

  134. According to Jones, Ruby asked him about the doctor with whom Eva was associating.(397) The report states, "The others accompanying Jones had told him that Ruby was 'OK.'" (398) Jones therefore told Ruby the doctor had a bad reputation, and Ruby said he planned on going to Dallas to straighten his sister out and asked if Jones would help him. The FBI report notes that, "One of those accompanying Jones had again replied that Ruby was all right and urged Jones to help which Jones had agreed to do."(399) A "few days later" Jones returned to Dallas, and about the same time Ruby also appeared in Dallas. Ruby contacted Jones and asked him for assistance in locating an apartment. (400)

  135. Jones related substantially the same version of his first meeting with Ruby in an interview on December 17, 1963. (401) He added, however, that Eva Grant had arranged the meeting between Jones, Labriola, and Weinberg.(402)

  136. In interviews after the assassination, Ruby stated he had moved to Dallas in June 1947 and opened a nightclub with his sister. (403) Late in 1947, he had returned to Chicago for a few weeks, but his sister asked him to come back to help her with the club. (404)

  137. Ruby was having some difficulty in various "merchandizing deals" in Chicago,* so he agreed to return (405)

  138. The Warren Commission concluded on the basis of the above investigation that Jack Ruby was not involved in the 1946 bribery case.(408) The report states that "the Commission finds it difficult to accept" the report by Steve Guthrie that during the bribery meeting the "criminals frequently mentioned that Ruby would operate `fabulous' restaurant as a front for gambling activities." (409)
    *Ruby was probably referring to the disputes he was having with his brothers about the operation of Earl Products. (406) The Warren report states that Jack Ruby "stayed with the company through most of 1947" and that he "had many disputes with his brothers because he insisted on selling the products of other companies, such as costume jewelry, and he did not like traveling outside of the Chicago area." (407)

    Treatment by the Committee

  139. The committee obtained the original recordings of the various meetings between Jones, Butler, and Guthrie. These were sent to Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc. to be recorded onto cassette tapes which were then reviewed. The original recordings were of such poor quality, however, that it was impossible to determine on the cassettes Ruby's name ever came up during the conversations. It also appeared that two recordings were missing. An FBI report from Ruby's FBI file refers to 22 phonograph records; (410) the committee only acquired 20. They were in the possession of George Butler.

  140. The committee reviewed the partial transcriptions of the recordings that had been reviewed by the FBI. It looked for any reference to or mention of Ruby. The review failed to reveal any references to Ruby or Rubenstein, Hyman Rubenstein, Eva Grant, Earl Ruby, the Silver Spur or the Singapore Club.

  141. The Chicago Crime Commission provided the committee with two memoranda concerning organized crime in Dallas. One, dated "about 1946," contained background information about "Chicago hoodlums who have been operating in the Dallas area for the past several months." (411)They were James Weinberg, Paul Ross, Paul Labriola, Martin Ochs, Julian R. Breakstone, Charles R. Coy, Nick de John, Jake Guzik, Harry Hornstein, Paul Mann, Louis Snyder, Jake Keller, Marcus Lipsky, Sam Yaras, and Paul Jones.(412) Attached to this memorandum was a list of names not of record in the Dallas Police Department.(413) Neither the memorandum nor the list made any reference to or mention of Jack Ruby or Rubenstein, Eva Grant, the Silver Spur or the Singapore Club.

  142. The other memorandum is a general background report of "rackets in Dallas."(414) It discusses generally the background of organized criminal activity in Dallas and the Jones bribery case. Again, there was no reference to or mention of Jack Ruby, his relatives or business interests. (415)

  143. The committee also obtained some of Butler's original notes. They contained no reference to Jack Ruby during the relevant time period of the fall of 1946. Butler's notes, dated October 21, 1947, did, however, mention Jack Ruby and Eva Grant.(416) On this date, Butler had interviewed Homer Raymond Padgett, who told him:

    * * * he had worked as manager of the Singapore Club for several months. Padgett stated he became very curious about the people and characters who hang around the place and about 3 months ago, when he tried to overhear what some the bunch were talking about, one jumped up and started beating him with a blackjack. Sitting at the table that night were Paul Jones, Abe Schepps, Jack Ruby, and two more characters known to him as Tony and David. They accused him more orless as a stool pigeon, one grabbed him arms behind his back and Jack Rose [sic] started on him with a sap. Padgett said that the Chicago bunch is gradually moving in, a few at a time. Two men have been placed in the shoe department, it Neiman Marcus Co. They were placed there under orders by a man named Max, who operates the Earl Products, Co. in Chicago. Max seems to be the big man who gives the orders * * * Mrs. Eva Grant is the front for the Singapore Club * * * When Grant died [Eva's husband], apparently of natural causes, she inherited about $100,000 in cash. Her brother Jack Ruby [whose real name is Rubenstein] and two others "beat" Mrs. Grant for nearly all her money. (417)

  144. When Eva Grant was asked about this allegation, she confirmed that Padgett, known to her as "Pat," was a floorman and bouncer for the Singapore Club. (418) She said that Jack Ruby beat Padgett because Padgett had cursed Ruby. (419) Grant also knew Abe Schepps but could not remember anyone by the name of Tony or David.(420) She stated that her husband did not work most of the time and did not leave her any money.(421) Grant did not recall anyone by the name of Max who was associated with Earl Products.

  145. Both Grant and Sam Ruby were questioned regarding their knowledge of or association with the individuals involved in the bribery attempt. Grant stated in one interview that in 1947, just prior to the opening of the Singapore Club, she was visited by Captain Reeves and an officer named Swanson or Hansson from the Dallas Police Department. They had asked her questions about knowing AI Capone and gangsters from Chicago who were visiting her club. At that time, she stated, she had been keeping company with Dr. Duncan, who introduced her to Jones who subsequently offered to buy her club, but without success. Jones, however, did use the phone in the club on sev* eral occasions. (423)

  146. In a subsequent interview, Grant said it was possible she first met Jones in the fall of 1946. (424) Grant was not sure whether she had introduced her brother, Jack Ruby, to Jones. She noted that it was shortly after her arrival from the west coast that she first met Captain Reeves and Chief Hansson. (425) She stated that subsequent to her meeting with Hansson in 1947, he asked her for and was given two cases of beer. (426) She said the last two times she saw Jones were just after he got out of jail in the late 1940's and in 1960, when he visited the Vegas Club.(427) Grant said that, Nick de John was a friend of Jones and Dr. Duncan, and she implied she knew de John through them. (428)

  147. Neither Grant nor Sam Ruby had any personal knowledge of Benny Binion, James Weinberg, Martin Ochs, Jake Guzik, Marcus Lipsky, Tony Accardo, Pete Strance, Bill Bundy, Eddie Vogel, Gus Alex, Lou Schneider, Paul Ross, Charles Coy or Julian Breakstone.(429) Grant, however, did recall that Sam Yaras ran a slotmachine business in Dallas and also did a lot of business with Jones connection with juke boxes.(430) She indicated that she had juke boxes in the club from 1945 to 1948.

  148. The committee interviewed and deposed George Butler regarding Ruby's involvement in the bribery case and relations with Chicago gangsters who were in Dallas. Butler stated that:

    In 1947-48 same members of the Capone organization were trying to move gambling into Dallas and he along with Sheriff Steve Guthrie, Chief of Police Carl Hansson, Ranger W.E. (Dub) Naylor, and Col. Homer Garrison set. them up where they either went to jail or left town(432)

  149. Butler said he had a "snitch" in the Capone outfit who told him Ruby had been considered too emotional and erratic and that the syndicate had no use for him and did not want anything to do with him. (433) Butler's informant was later identified as Jones.

  150. When asked if Ruby's or Grant's name ever came up in his conversations with Jones, Butler responded:

    Yeah, when--when Paul Jones--you know, we were in the midst of all this session that was going on. He would tell me about all the bigwheels in the syndicate, and he said there was guy coming in here that--from Chicago, but he's not part of us. He's too emotional. He's too---He doesn't have the stability that they like in their gangster connections, and he did mention that they had opened a place, I think; called the Silver Spur or the Silver Slipper. (435)

  151. When asked for details regarding the Chicago criminals in Dallas, Butler identified Nick de John, Paul Labriola, Martin Ochs, James Barcella, Danny Lardino, Sam Yaras, Lou Schneider, Jake Guzik, Julian Breakstone, Paul Ross, Charles Coy, and Dave Yaras as being part of the "Chicago group." (436)

  152. Butler stated he used to talk to Jones every time he'd see him on the street."(437) Jones became Butler's informant shortly after the election in 1946 and at one point told Butler that "Ruby didn't amount to anything, but he was trying to get in with them." (438) According to Butler, Jones' explanation for Ruby's move to Dallas was that Ruby had been run out of San Francisco. (439) Jones told Butler, "He's not art of us He wants to be but he's no part of us."(440)

  153. When asked about Steve Guthrie's statement that Ruby was part of the Chicago group, Bultler stated he did not "buy it" because:

    I was closer to them than anybody. I'd go into their houses and listen to all that stuff, and they'd bring characters in here like Manno from Chicago and some of those other top hoodlums, and Ruby never was around * * * I think Steve had the impression that they were going to use Ruby to run that Venus cafe, a gambling joint, after they opened up, but in these tapes they definitely say they're going to use local people and not going to use any Jews and I don't know why the Jewish angle came up in this thing. (441)

  154. When Butler was asked if Ruby was part of the Chicago organized crime group that moved to Dallas Butler replied, "I'd say that positively in my opinion he wasn't."(442) Butler stated that the Chicago group did not trust Ruby "or have confidence in his stability." (443)

  155. The committee reviewed Jones' FBI file. This file contained information about the bribery attempt but made no reference to Jack Ruby being involved in the incident.

  156. On the basis of the above investigation and research, it would seem that there is no substantial evidence linking Ruby to the attempted bribery of Steve Guthrie. Ruby did know Jones and may have known other individuals who were involved in the incident or who were Chicago gangsters who had moved to Dallas. Ruby may also have desired to participate in the bribery attempt or be part of the Chicago group generally, but there is no significant evidence that he did in fact participate. There is also no evidence that Ruby was to be involved in the final setup of the gambling establishment, had the bribery attempt been successful, or that Ruby came to Dallas for that purpose. Jones did state he would bring one man from the outside into the arrangement and that the remainder of the participants would be local people. (444) It is doubtful that Jones had Ruby in mind at that time as the "outside representative," since Jones had not yet met Ruby. (The evidence indicates Ruby did not meet Jones until after the bribery attempt had failed.) Jones mentioned several people who might have been involved in the operation of the gambling club,(445) but apparently he did not mention Jack Ruby.

  157. That this incident occurred in 1946 made it difficult, if not impossible, to resolve definitely. The primary participants are dead, including Jones, Labriola, Weinberg, de John, Nitti, and Manno. (446) Memories have faded, and there would have been no reason for people to attach any significance to Jack Ruby's name at that time It is, therefore, unreasonable to expect witnesses to remember, in detail, Jack Ruby in the 1940's. In addition, the committee was unable to interview Steve Guthrie.

  158. Despite problems with obtaining statements from witnesses, the documentary evidence regarding this incident is detailed and comprehensive. George Butler's notes and the FBI reports and transcripts of the recordings provided a surprisingly clear picture of the meetings that occurred in 1946. Because of the comprehensiveness of this coverage, it is logical to assume that had Ruby been involved in any significant way, his name would have appeared some place among these documents. On the basis of a review of these documents and the recordings it would seem that Ruby knew Jones, but there was no significant evidence of his participation in the the bribery attempt.



  159. The Warren Commission Report makes reference to a trip Jack Ruby made to Cuba:

    In September 1959, Ruby traveled to Havana as a guest of a close friend and known gambler, Lewis J. McWillie. Both Ruby and McWillie state the trip was purely social. (447)

    The report explicitly states that there "is no reliable evidence that Ruby went to Havana subsequent to September 1959."(448) Interestingly, it contains no such statement about prior trips, nor even mentions that possibility.

  160. Although admitting some "uncertainty" about Ruby's trip to Cuba, the report strongly implies the trip was purely for vacation. It concludes that there was "no substantiation * * * for rumors linking Ruby with pro- or anti-Castro Cuban activities."(449) It does, however, state that Ruby might have been involved as a middleman in a jeep sale to Cuba. (450) Despite this, the possibility that Ruby's trip might have been connected to organized crime interests was not discussed.
    *Prepared by Donald A. Purdy, Jr., senior staff counsel, and Leslie H. Wizelman, staff researcher.

  161. There was evidence that two Warren Commission staff attorneys, Leon I). Hubert and Butt W. Griffin, who were assigned to investigate the Ruby area, had doubts about the report's conclusions. In a memorandum to the Commission, dated March 19, 1964 they discussed Ruby's activities with regard to Cuba, specifically stating:

    The number and length of Ruby's stays to Cuba are not entirely clear. Ruby admits to having been in Cuba only once: in 1959 for about 10 days. However, records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service show that Ruby flew to Havana from Miami on the night of September 12, 1959, and returned to New Orleans on September 13, 1959. Ruby has not explained this trip, unless it is the trip to which Ruby admits. (451)

  162. The memorandum also stated that Ruby claimed his trip to Cuba was to discuss with McWillie "gambling opportunities Cuba." (452)

  163. Griffin and Hubert further discussed various rumors which they characterized as "possible links among Ruby, Oswald, and various Cuba groups."(453) These included the possibility that Ruby might have been involved in illegal activities in Cuba. (454) The two men stated that the rumors had not been "sufficiently investigated or substantiated." (455)

  164. In his testimony before the committees, Griffin stated that the Warren Commission's investigation did not adequately focus on the possibility that Ruby. was involved in illegal activities with Cuban elements who might have had contact with Oswald.

  165. In a letter dated April 3, 1964, the Warren Commission requested the FBI to conduct further investigation so as "to clarify the number of trips which Ruby made to Cuba in 1959 and succeeding years?' (457) This letter also requested that the FBI investigate further several of the allegations raised in Hubert's and Griffin's memorandum. The FBI did reinterview several of the individuals they had previously interviewed.(458) Nevertheless, a review of Jack Ruby's FBI file and Warren Commission documents failed to reveal any resolution of these issues.

  166. In light of its conclusions the Commission either did not fully investigate the allegations and rumors raised by Hubert and Griffin or, if it did investigate, concluded that these issues did not warrant indusion in the report. This omission has raised serious questions among critics of the Warren Commission. Allegations have been made regarding both the. number of Ruby's trips and the activities he pursued on them. One critic claimed Ruby may have traveled to Havana six or more times," (459) another that Ruby "developed a business interest in Cuba."(460) It has also been suggested that Ruby was serving as a courier for organized crime figures.(461) In addition, allegations have arisen regarding possible associations between Ruby and organized crime members who were involved in the CIA Mafia plots to assassinate Fidel Castro. (462) One of the most serious is that Ruby assisted in obtaining the release of Santos Trafficante, Jr., a leading organized crime member, from a Cuban prison.(463) The evidence would seem to indicate that the Warren Commission's inadequate investigation of Ruby's trips was a major reason for the resulting speculation and that the issue warranted further investigation.

  167. While the committee acquired additional information regarding some of these activities, the evidence was not sufficient to resolve all the allegations.

    Statements by Ruby

  168. FBI and Secret Service interviews.--On December 2, 1963, Ruby was interviewed by Secret Service Agent Moore. The report of this interview states:

    Ruby admitted to Agent Moore that he did make a trip to Cuba, which was supposed to last for 10 days, on an invitation from Louis McWillie, described by Agent Moore as gambler who is well known in Fort Worth and Dallas, Tex. McWillie was known to run gambling games in Dallas prior to 1959, according to Moore * * *. McWillie, according to Ruby, wrote Ruby or sent word to Ruby in Dallas that he, McWillie, would like for Ruby to visit him in Havana. McWillie reportedly sent Ruby plane tickets to Havana and Ruby went down as a guest. Ruby told Agent Moore although he was supposed to spend 10 days in Cuba, following his arrival, he found he did not have a good time as he expected, he was not a gambler, and after several days in Havana with nothing to do, he was glad to return to Dallas. (464)

  169. On December 21, 1963, Ruby was interviewed by FBI Special Agent C. Ray Hall.(465) Ruby stated he had visited McWillie in Havana, Cuba, during August 1959.(466) He lived at the Fosca Apartments with McWillie for 8 to 10 days. (467) Ruby claimed he spent all his time in Havana, "except to go to a small area on one occasion with one of the Fox brothers who owned the Tropicana. (468)" Ruby also told Hall he had never been in Cuba "since or before." (469)

  170. Warren Commission Testimony.--During Ruby's testimony before the Warren Commission, he repeatedly stated he had been in Cuba only once(470) and that this trip was in August 1959.(471) The visit was made at the invitation of McWillie, who sent him his airplane ticket.(472) When asked about his travel route to and from Cuba, Ruby appeared confused. He stated:

    I think I told Mr. Moore I stopped in New Orleans. Sometime I stopped in New Orleans, and I don't remember if I stopped in Florida or New Orleans, but I know I did stop in New Orleans, because I bought some Carioca rum coming back. I know I was to Miami on a stopover. It could have been on the way back. (473)

    Continuing, Ruby conjectured:

    * * * here is what could have happened. I could have made double stop from Havana on the way back in taking in Miami, and then taking another plane to New Orleans, I am not certain. But I only made one trip to Havana. Yet I know I was in Miami, Fla., and I was in New Orleans. (474)

  171. According to Ruby, when he arrived in Havana, the Cuban customs agents delayed him "for hours" while searching his luggage. (475) Ruby claimed the reason for this delay was the discovery his luggage of a photograph of one of the Fox brothers. Ruby stated McWillie met him at the airport (476) and that he stayed with McWillie at Volk's Apartments in Havana for approximately 8 days. (477) Ruby again stated he was bored in Cuba. (478) The only activities Ruby discussed were going to the club every evening with McWillie and swimming at the Capri and Nacional once or twice. (479) He stated he was with McWillie "constantly."

  172. During Ruby's polygraph examination, he again spoke of his trip to Cuba:

    When people ask me they say, "Jack, you went to Havana, Cuba"'and I say, "I went there for a vacation." They say, "How long did you stay?" When I say, "8 days" you somehow have got to answer specifically that it was a vacation, because a person can be very evasive and say he went for vacation but yet had other dealings there. (481)

  173. Following this statement, Assistant District Attorney William Alexander asked Ruby if his trip to Cuba was purely for vacation and pleasure; Ruby replied, "That's right."(482) During the actual examination, Special Agent Herndon asked Ruby if he did business with Castro and Cuba; Ruby replied, "No."(483) Herndon also asked if Ruby's trip to Cuba was solely for pleasure, to which Ruby replied "Yes." (484) Unfortunately, the conditions under which the polygraph examination was conducted were such that the test has to be considered invalid, and therefore the results cannot be interpreted. (485)

  174. Other Statements.--- Ruby made several statements to other individuals regarding his trip and activities in Cuba. An FBI interview report on Clarence Rector states:

    He [Rector] went to Cuba for 2 days in late 1959 and in early 1960 he was back in Dallas and went to the Vegas Club and saw Ruby. He mentioned he had been to Cuba and Ruby stated he had recently been to Cuba himself, as he and some associates were trying to get some gambling concessions at casino there but it did not work out. (486)

  175. The FBI also interviewed Tony Otillar, a ticket agent for Delta Airlines in New Orleans. (487)

    According to the FBI report this interview:

    * * * approximately 7 years ago Jack Ruby flew from New Orleans to Havana, Cuba. At that time Ruby was at the New Orleans Airport to catch this flight. Otillar struck up a conversation with him and then became acquainted with him. He advised that prior to leaving on the flight, Ruby made a long distance call to Dallas, Tex., and talked with someone who was employed at his nightclub. He told whoever he was talking to that he was going to Havana and that the entire trip was being paid for by someone else and was not costing him anything. He advised the person he was speaking to on the telephone not to disclose his whereabouts unless it was to the police or some other official agency. (488)

  176. Alice Nichols, who dated Ruby during the 1950's, informed the committee that in September 1959 Ruby called her and told here was going to Cuba on vacation. (489) Nichols believed Ruby was away for 1 or 2 weeks. She provided the committee with a postcard of the Fosca Building as seen from the Nacional that she had received from Ruby. (490) Dated September 8, 1959, it states:

    Dear Alice, the Tropicana is beautiful and do wish you were here. These people are the most carefree I've ever seen. They party in the street all nite. This is the building we are staying in. Mac says hello.--Love, Jack.(491)

  177. The committee interviewed Samuel Ruby, Jack's brother, on December 27, 1977. (492) He stated that some time in 1960 Jack Ruby had told him that McWillie had sent him a ticket to visit him in Cuba and that while there he had met George Raft. (493) Jack Rub also told his brother that he had only spent a weekend in Cuba.(494)

  178. Wally Weston, a comedian and emcee who worked for Ruby, reformed the committee that while visiting Ruby in jail some time after Ruby was convicted, Ruby mentioned Cuba:

    When I went to see him [Jack Ruby] that one time he was shook he said gez, Wally, now they're going to find out about Cuba, they're going to find out about the guns, find out about New Orleans, find out about everything. (495)

  179. Robert Ray McKeown told the committee that Ruby had visited him in 1959 to discuss selling equipment (i.e., jeeps) to Castro. (496) McKeown claimed Ruby told him he knew some members of the Mafia in Cubs and had visited the country once while on vacation.

    Statements by Lewis J. McWillie

  180. FBI and Warren Commission investigation.--McWillie was first asked about his relationship with Jack Ruby on November 25, 1963, when he was interviewed by the FBI.(498) According to the report of this interview, McWillie said that "some time in 1959, Ruby had been in Cuba for about a 1-week vacation and he had seen Ruby there at that time."(499) McWillie disclosed no additional information about Ruby's trip.

  181. During this initial interview, the FBI also asked McWillie about a statement made by Elaine Mynier, a mutual friend of Jack Ruby and McWillie.(500)Mynier had advised the FBI that shortly after Castro took over, she took a vacation to Cuba. Ruby had given her a "short-written message in code consisting of letters and numbers and including the word 'arriving'" and asked her to convey this message to McWillie.(501) In a later FBI interview, Mynier said Ruby gave the message to her in Dallas and told her to "tell McWillie that Sparky from Chicago is coming." (502) She delivered the message that said McWillie made some comment about Ruby to the effect that "he is nuts?" (503)

  182. When asked about Elaine Mynier, McWillie advised that she was a resident of Dallas who worked for the Avis rental agency at the Dallas airport, and that she was acquainted with Ruby.(504) McWillie remembered that she had visited Havana and stayed for approximately 2 weeks. He denied that he had used her as a courier between Ruby and himself. (505)

  183. The FBI reinterviewed McWillie on June 8, 1964. McWillie applied additional details about Ruby's trip. (506) The report of this interview states:

    In 1959, date unrecalled, he wrote to Ruby and asked him he would like to come to Havana for a week. He stated there was no ulterior motive and that he had been a close friend Ruby's and extended this invitation as one would to a brother. He realized Ruby was working hard with his Dallas nightclub and felt that Ruby needed a rest. Because the cost of plane tickets in Havana could be paid for by pesos for aproximately one-fifth of a cost of a ticket in the United States, he purchased a round trip ticket for Ruby at his own expense and mailed it to Ruby in Dallas, after which Ruby boarded plane and flew to Havana for a visit. (507)

    McWillie believed that Ruby did some sightseeing while in Cuba and visited the Tropicana. (508)

  184. The FBI also interviewed Meyer R. Panitz, (509) a Miami resident and friend of McWillie's and Ruby's. (510) McWillie had stated that Panitz was a bookmaker active in the gambling trade. Panitz advised that in the summer of 1959, he was working at' the Booker T. Lounge in Miami Beach, Fla. During this time, he received a phone call from McWillie who was in Cuba. (511) According to Panitz, McWillie told him that Ruby had visited him in Cuba and was then in Miami Beach. Panitz subsequently contacted Ruby at Wolfie's Restaurant, 21st Street and Collins, in Miami Beach. (512) Panitz stated he visited Ruby on two occasions over a couple of days. (513) He could not recall the month of these visits but was somewhat certain it was in the summer of 1959.(514) There is no evidence that the FBI questioned McWillie about the phone call to Panitz.

  185. Another FBI report, dated March 26, 1964, provides additional information about McWillie's associates. (515)

    As of May, 1960, McWillie was pitboss at the Riviera Casino, Havana, Cuba. Report reflects that it would appear McWillie solidified his syndicate connections through his association in Havana, Cuba, with Santos Trafficante, well-known syndicate member, Tampa, Fla.; Meyer and Jake Lanski: Dino Cellini and others who were members of or associates "the syndicate."; (516)

  186. McWillie was not interviewed by members of the Warren Commission staff, and he did not testify before the Commission.

  187. Statements to the committee.--The committee first interviewed McWillie on May 21, 1977.(517) In this interview, McWillie stated "that to his knowledge Ruby was in Cuba only one time as his guest." (518) He gave an explanation for Ruby's visit that he had never mentioned previously--he wanted Ruby to contact Toni Zoppi, a Dallas columnist, in the hope that Zoppi would come to Cuba and write a favorable story about the casino in which McWillie worked.(519) McWillie explained that Zoppi could not come to Cuba that that he gave Ruby a free trip. (520) In a later statement, McWillie said Ruby never told him before his arrival in Cuba that Zoppi was not coming.(521) According to McWillie, Ruby stayed in Cuba 6 days.(522)

  188. McWillie was also asked about an allegation made by John Wilson Hudson, a British journalist. A State Department cablegram from London, dated November 26, 1963, states that Hudson gave information to the American Embassy in London which indicated that Hudson was detained in Cuba in 1959 and that he knew "an American gangster named Santos while in Havana."(523) Hudson also stated that "while in prison individual named Ruby would come to prison with person bringing food."(524).A CIA release dated November 28, 1963, states that Wilson said while he was in prison, "Santos was visited frequently by an American gangster-type named Ruby. (525)

  189. The "Santos" referred to by Hudson was probably Santos Trafficante Jr., a powerful organized crime member detained in Cuba during the summer of 1959.

  190. When asked about Trafficante in his first committee interview, McWillie stated Ruby did not know Trafficante. (526) McWillie added that he also did not know Trafficante, acting as if he did not even recognize the name. (527)

  191. The committee deposed McWillie on April 4, 1978. (528) At that time, McWillie reiterated his new explanation for Ruby's trip, stating:

    When I was in the Tropicana, they [the Fox brothers, owners of the Tropicana were hunting for business, trying to get business, and I suggested that I call Jack Ruby and have him get a hold of Tony Zoppi. Tony Zoppi is a well known columnist like Bishop, Earl Wilson, people like that. That's the kind of a man he was in Dallas and all society people read his column. He wrote me back that they'd come over on a certain date. So I sent him two tickets, which the place paid for. Then I explained to him we would pay for their room. We figured he would get a lot of publicity from it and people from Dallas would come to Cuba. Later on, if I remember right, Jack came and said that, what's his name, Tony couldn't make it. That's the cause of all my problems. (529)

  192. McWillie also stated he asked Ruby to get in touch with Zoppi because he did not know Zoppi too well and Ruby did. (539) Zoppi was an entertainment columnist for the Dallas Morning News whom Ruby visited frequently to obtain publicity for the acts at his club. (531)

  193. In an effort to substantiate this version of events, McWillie supplied the committee with a letter, postmarked August 18, 1976, written by Zoppi to Matty Brescia, who had given it to McWillie's brother. When McWillie first received this letter, it refreshed his memory regarding Zoppi. This letter states:

    Give my regard to McWillie next time you are in touch.

    Jack Ruby and I were supposed to visit him in Havana but got sidetracked. Jack went on ahead and it caused Mack a lot of trouble over the years. The quick buck artists are saying Jack went down there to plan the assassination. He couldn't have planned a gas station holdup in those days. All of a sudden he's a CIA agent, a Mafia don, etcetera, etcetera, sickening. (532)

  194. When McWillie was asked why he did not tell the FBI about Zoppi, he replied:

    I had just forgot about it, to tell you the truth. I was all shook up about the darn thing happening and it just slipped my mind. (533)

  195. McWillie said Ruby visited Cuba sometime in 1959, perhaps in August. (534) When McWillie was informed that an article by Zoppi stated that the proposed trip was in December 1958, McWillie stated:

    Maybe I did call him before 1959. But I did call him in 1959 again. If I did make a call in 1958, then I did make a call in 1959. (535)

  196. Regarding Ruby's stay in Cuba, McWillie stated Ruby stayed at a "little hotel" which he could see from his apartment window in the "Foxa" building.(536) When asked about Ruby's activities in Cuba, McWillie stated:

    He was right out there where I worked. Every morning when I got up he was there. When I left the place, he went with me to eat and went to bed. (537)

    McWillie also indicated Ruby might have gone to a show at the Capri once or twice, but added, "I don't remember a darn thing he did but bug me all week." (538)

  197. During his deposition, McWillie was again asked about Santos Trafficante. This time McWillie stated:

    * * * he knew who I was and he shook hands with me when he saw me, but that was it. I've been asked that a lot of times, too. But I didn't know Mr. Trafficante intimately, no. (539)

  198. McWillie could not recall if he had ever met Trafficante in the United States. (540) When asked if he visited Trafficante in a Cuban prison, Trescornia, McWillie said:

    I didn't visit him. I went out there once or twice to visit a fellow, he was a dealer. He had a young son and a wife and he gambled all his money away. At times we would take up a collection amongst dealers and give him money. I went out there once or twice to see him. (541)

    Continuing later:

    I saw everybody out there. Trafficante, I think he was in there * * * I saw him but i didn't talk to him * * * I don't know him that intimately.(542)

  199. McWillie stated that he did not believe Ruby was visiting him at the time of his prison visits, but indicated he could have been. (543) When asked if Ruby visited the prison with him, McWillie stated:

    I really don't know. It's possible he could have but I don't think, if he did, he went with me and I don't recall it but he could have. I don't know for sure * * *. (544)

  200. In his deposition, McWillie was also questioned about both Meyer Panitz and Elaine Mynier. (545) McWillie believed Panitz was in Cuba when Ruby was there and could not recall telephoning Panitz in Miami to tell him Ruby was also in Miami. (546) McWillie stated he had dated Mynier but denied receiving a message from her that Ruby had sent from Dallas. (547)

  201. McWillie also stated in his deposition that he had traveled to Miami on many occasions to deposit money in a Miami bank for the Fox brothers, the owners of the Tropicana. (548)

  202. On August 16, 1978, McWillie was contacted by the committee. He repeated his statement that Ruby's 1959 trip was to involve Zoppi.(549)

  203. McWillie was next subpenaed to appear before an open session of the committee. He testified on September 27, 1978, at which time he repeated the Zoppi explanation for Ruby's trip to Cuba. (550) On this occasion, McWillie stated he called Ruby in 1958 and asked him to get Zoppi to come to Cuba, but Ruby "couldn't bring him or something."(551) He then called Ruby again in 1959 and repeated his request.(552) He sent Ruby two ticket% but only Ruby made the trip.(553) Again, McWillie stated Ruby was there a week or 6 days.(554) When asked if Ruby might have stayed longer, McWillie stated, "no, I think I took him to the airport."(555) McWillie also denied that Ruby left, Cuba during his visit, returning later:(556)

    If he [Ruby] did make a trip I would not know it, sir, and I would think I would know it, and I didn't see Jack Ruby after he left that one time. (557)

  204. When asked about Panitz, McWillie at first denied calling him, (558) but when confronted with Panitz's FBI interview, stated he could not "recall" telephoning Panitz. (559)

  205. McWillie's testimony regarding Ruby's activities while in Cuba was substantially the same as his prior statements. (560)

  206. When asked again about his visits to the prison, Trescornia, in which Trafficante was detained, McWillie stated he had visited there twice to visit Guiseppe de George (a dealer friend). (561) He may have also visited Dino Cellini, who was detained there.(562) He a]so recalled that Jake Lansky and Trafficante were at Trescornia. (563) McWillie recalled seeing Celline, de George, Trafficante and Lansky(564) on his first visit to the camp. In fact, he spoke with Cellini, de George and Lansky. (565) McWillie stated, however, "I didn't talk to Trafficante because I didn't know him that well to speak to him." (566)

  207. McWillie indicated the same people were at Trescornia on his second visit.(567) With regard to Trafficante, McWillie stated, "I probably said hello to him the second time I was there."(568) When asked if Ruby could have accompanied him to Trescornia, McWillie stated:

    Jack Ruby could have been out there one time with me. I don't think he was. I went out there, I think, by myself * * * I don't know if he was there at that time or not. If he was, I could have taken him out there with me, yes. I'm not positive about it. (569)

    Statements by Tony Zoppi

  208. With respect to McWillie's explanation of Ruby's trip to Cuba the committee interviewed Tony Zoppi on several occasions. The report of the first interview on March 13, 1978, including the following:

    * * * one day in December Jack Ruby called me and asked me how I would like to go to Cuba and write about the clubs there. When I agreed that it would suit me fine, Ruby. said he had a friend, Lewis McWillie, who managed the Casmo in the Tropicana, and he would arrange for McWillie to send us two tickets. About a week later Ruby called Zoppi to inform him that he had received the plane tickets from McWillie and that they would leave in several weeks. Zoppi stated that he never made that trip because 1 week prior to leaving he had received a call from the Sands Hotel informing him that Frank Sinatra, Sammy Davis, Jr. Joey Bishop, Dean Martin, and Peter Lawford were to appear there in what was ballyhooed to be one of the greatest acts in show business. It was to be called the summit meeting. Of course, Zoppi had to accept this invitation and informed Ruby that he was unable to accompany him to Cuba but perhaps would join him at a later date after he had completed his assignment at the Sands Hotel. Ruby did proceed with his plans and went to Cuba and he was to join him after the holidays. Needless to say, Zoppi remarked that he never did join him because on December 31st, Fidel Castro's revolution was a success and he came into power. (570)

  209. Zoppi was reinterviewed on March 31, 1978, and on April 5, 1978. (571) The report of the March 31 interview states:

    His best recollection was that during September or October of 1958 Ruby offered to write McWillie at the Tropicana to get them airplane tickets so Zoppi could review the acts at the Tropicana to help McWillie's business. The OK for trip was received approximately December 8 or 9 (or 10-12) and the trip was to last. 4--5 days. Zoppi wanted to be back for the holidays. They would pay their own way down and be reimbursed: this was the common practice for journalists reviewing acts. In late November, Jack Entratter and Al Freeman called inviting Zoppi to review a big anniversary show at the Sands in Las Vegas. Zoppi said (as he had written in his article) the show was a "summit meeting" show featuring Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin, Sammy Davis Jr., Joey Bishop, and Peter Lawford. Zoppi figured there wouldn't be anything "like this" in Cuba so he decided to postpone the trip and told Ruby he would meet him down there after the new year on approximately January 4. Ruby told Zoppi he would go down, stay down there and meet Zoppi in Cuba. Zoppi then states he never went down due to Castro's takeover in January. He vaguely remembers Ruby told him he had a good time in Cuba. He doesn't know if Ruby had been there before or not. (572)

  210. On April 5, 1978, Zoppi was questioned further about the dates of the proposed trip to Cuba. He was also shown the letter which McWillie had given the committee, which had reminded McWillie of Zoppi's role in Ruby's Cuba trip. Zoppi authenticated his signature on this letter. (573) It was pointed out to Zoppi that Castro's takeover did not immediately prevent travel to Cuba. (574) Zoppi then called the Sands Hotel to obtain information about the big shows during the 1958-61 period in order to determine which show he had reviewed. (575) He stated it could have been the December 1958 show with Rowan and Martin, the December 1960 show with Marry Allen and Steve Rossi, or the December 1959 show with Dean Martin.(576) He thought it was the big show with Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin, and Sammy Davis which he had referred to in his initial interview; it had taken place from January 20 to February 16, 1960. (577) After reviewing all the show% Zoppi admitted he was very unsure about the date of the scheduled trip to Cuba. (578) Zoppi recalled that the alternative trip on January 4 was probably prevented by Castro's takeover. (579) Castro assumed power in Cuba on January 1, 1959; he severed diplomatic relations with the United States on January 1, 1961. Zoppi agreed that perhaps Ruby had gone to Cuba in August 1959 on vacation and the trip Zoppi and Ruby were to take was an entirely different, trip.(580)

  211. The committee again spoke with Zoppi on September 15, 1978.(581) Zoppi repeated that the trip to Cuba was originally scheduled for December 11, 1958, but he postponed the trip so he could attend and review the December anniversary show at the Sands.(582) He also said that when Castro took over on the first of the year, he decided not to visit Cuba. (583). Zoppi stated it was possible the trip was cancelled because of the break in diplomatic relations on January 1, 1961, but believed the trip was cancelled as a result of the Castro takeover on January 1, 1959. (584) Zoppi also stated that Ruby did not give him an airline ticket. (585) He indicated that sometime later, Ruby asked Zoppi why he did not go to Cuba and Zoppi told him it was "because of all that trouble." (586)

  212. Zoppi also supplied the committee with an article he wrote in 1973 called "Ruby in Retrospect" In it, Zoppi stated:

    Jack had a good friend named Lewis McWillie who was a casino executive at the Tropicana in Havana. He asked McWillie if he would like me to fly to Cuba and do a story on the Tropicana's show. Lew agreed and said he would send a pair of plane tickets. The date was set for December 17. 1960. By coincidence, I received a call from Jack Entratter at the Sands Hotel in Las Vegas inviting me to "the summit meeting"--an unprecedented show featuring Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin, Sammy Davis, Joey Bishop and Peter Lawford. I called Ruby and told him I would have to postpone the trip to Cuba until early January because I wanted to see the Sands show. He said he would depart as scheduled and see me in Havana "right after the first of the year."(587)

    Statements by Santos Trafficante

  213. Trafficante testified before the committee on September '28, [978. He stated he was detained at Trescornia,(588) but could not remember the exact dates he was there. (589) He recalled Dino Cellini, Jack Lansky. Chuck White (Charles Tontine, Jr.) and Guiseppe de George as being other people held at Trescornia.(590) When asked about visitors and people who might have assisted him in being released from Trescornia, Trafficante stated:

    I had a lot of people come and see me trying to help me to get out, and the attorney that 1 had was a fellow by the name of Mr. Bango, and I think Mr. Gener was interested in getting me cut and a, lot of other people that were in the casino business, native people, like Mr. Fox and Mr. Petere and Mr. Alfred Gonzalez and Raoul Gonzalez. We had a good relationship and they all tried their best to get me out. (591)

    Later, Trafficante testified:

    Let me tell you, Mr. Stokes. this was like a camp. There was no---it was a minimum security place. They would let anybody come in. They would let anybody stay with us until 12 o'clock at night. We would coo [sic], we would have food brought in, we would eat, we would drink and there would be, sometimes, the guards would come and sit down with us and eat. Some meal it was like one big happy family. (592)

  214. When asked about McWillie, Trafficante stated he had seen him "around Havana a lot,";(593) however, he could not recall him visiting Trescornia, but acknowledged that he might have come. (594) Regarding Ruby, Trafficante stated:

    I never remember meeting Jack Ruby * * * There was no reason for this man to visit me. I have never seen this man before. I have never been to Dallas; I never had no contact with him. I don't see why he was going to come and visit me.(595)

    Regarding John Wilson Hudson, Trafficante testified:

    Let me tell you what used to happen. I vaguely remember some guy there that was kind of a little bit of a screwball. I don't know if it's him or not. Because there used to be all kinds of people they would bring into there; people that they would bring into there; people that would have difficulty with the traveling papers * * * So it would be possible that he was there, but I was to see him how, I wouldn't remember none of these people. (596)

  215. A confidential source available to the committee previously reported Trafficante as saying:

    Another guy which I read in the paper was supposedly a journalist * * * I remember him vaguely. I didn't even know he was a--they used to come and go. It was not a matter that they would stay. (597)

    Trafficante is reported to have described this man as "a kook, a funny guy, for me he was a mental case." (598); and stated:

    When he came in there they made him like a joke, he was supposed to fill out his food for the next day, the night before, like * * * Like breakfast and dinner and supper and he had to order it the day before. And that was all in fun, he never would get--until we finally had to give him some of our food. (599)

    Paskin Allegation

  216. In a memorandum, dated January 27, 1964, investigator Albert L. Tarabochia, then working in Miami for the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, wrote that on January 24, 1964, he was advised by Jose A. Gonzalez Lanuza of the Cuban Student Directorate (DRE) that there were "indications of a trip to Cuba made by Jack Ruby in 1963."(600) Tarabochia wrote that further investigation "revealed that Jack Ruby had visited Solomon Pratkin or Paskin in Havana. Paskin owns and operates a curio shop in Havana across from the Hotel Seville." (601) Further, Mr. Carlos Valdes-Fauli reported to the writer that he had received a letter from a relative in Havana in which the above information was related. Mr. Valdes-Fauli, when contacted on the evening of January 27, stated that he had surrendered the letter to Agent James O'Connor of the Federal Bureau of Investigation after the agent contacted him at his place of employment that same afternoon. Mr. Valdes-Fauli added that the letter was dated December 1963 and the reference to Ruby's trip to Cuba was "last year the assassin of President Kennedy's assassin visited Paskin last year at his home. Paskin is a friend and client of Ruby."

  217. An FBI report (602) states that Gonzalez Lanuza said he had received the information about Jack Ruby from a fellow member of the DRE, Juan Manuel Salvat. (603) When the FBI interviewed Salvat, he stated he had received the information through a contact of Carlos Valdes-Fauli.(604) The FBI interview report of ValdesFauli states:

    Mr. Valdes related that in approximately the beginning of January 1964, he received a letter from his sister-in-law, Graziella Rubio, age 45, who lives in Marianao, Cuba. Mr. Valdes made available the section of the letter pertaining to Jack Ruby, and a translation from the Spanish is as follows:

    Ruby, the assassin of Oswald, was in Havana a year ago. He is a friend and a client of an individual named Praskin, who owns or manages a souvenir shop located on Prado between Animas and Trocadero Streets in front of the Sevilla Hotel. (605)

    This report also says that Valdes-Fauli "stated his sister-in-law very probably learned the information concerning Ruby through hearsay." (606)

  218. The committee contacted Lanuza Gonzalez on August 1978.(607) He said he had no recollection of talking with Albert Tarabochia about a visit to Cuba by Jack Ruby.(608) He also did not recall reporting such a visit to the FBI. He said, however, that "if Ai Tarabochia wrote it, it must be true because he was a very honorable man." (609)

  219. Valdes-Fauli was contacted on August 4,, 1978.(610) He acknowledged that Graziella Rubio was his sister-in-law. He was asked about the letter sent to him in 1964 by his sister-in-law concerning Jack Ruby. He replied, "I don't recall it." He was asked if he ever spoke with A1 Tarabochia. He said, "No, I don't recall it." He was then asked if he was ever questioned by the FBI, and he responded, "Never."(611) Finally, he was asked if he was ever questioned by FBI Agent James O'Connor. He replied:

    Never. I don't recall it. I don't recall anything about that. I have never been questioned about the assassination of Mr. Kennedy. I am absolutely sure. (612)

    Valdes-Fauli was then read a portion of the Tarabochia memorandum dealing with his reporting his sister-in-law's letter to him. His response was "I am absolutely sure that I have never been in touch with that agent. I have never received that letter. I am absolutely sure."(613)

  220. Valdes-Fauli was interviewed on August 7, 1978. At that time, he stated that from the time of the telephone interview concerning his sister-in-law's letter, he had since recalled that he did receive letter from her concerning Jack Ruby. (614) He could not recall what the letter said specifically, but thought it said something about "Ruby being in Cuba at the Hotel Hilton and that he personally talked to Castro."(615) Valdes-Fauli a]so informed the committee that his sister-in-law had since moved to Miami and suggested she be interviewed.(616) He said her name was then Graziela Guerra.(617)

  221. Guerra was interviewed on August, 9, 1978.(618) She said she recalled sending the letter about Ruby to her brother-in-law, but she did not remember the details. "The way it was then," she said, "was that I sent the information and then as soon as I write it I try to forget it. It was too dangerous to remember information." (619) She stated she had no personal knowledge of Ruby's being in Cuba, or meeting with Praskin, but had been given the information by some individual(620) whom she could not recall.

  222. She related that she did not know Praskin (621) and that she had been given the information "maybe 3 or 4 days before" she wrote the letter. (622) When asked how reliable she considered the information about Ruby, she stated:

    Ruby was definitely in Cuba. I know that. Someone else told me that he was there and that he went to visit Fidel at the place where Fidel had his vacation home. (623)

    Again Guerra could not recall who told her this.(624)

  223. Guerra also informed the committee that she was affiliated with the anti-Castro group, the Movimiento Recuberacion Revolucionario (MRR), headed by Manolo Artime, and she was sometimes given information by Cuban anti-Castro underground operatives to send out of Cuba.(625)

    Information provided by the Cuban Government

  224. On March 31, 1978, the committee met in Cuba with representatives of the Cuban Government. At this meeting the committee was given two Cuban tourist cards. (626) They bore the name of Jack Ruby. (627) One indicated Ruby had departed from New Orleans for Cuba on August 8, 1959, and left Cuba on September 11, 1959.(628) The other indicated that Ruby had left Miami for Cuba on September 12, 1959, and left Cuba on September 13, 1959.(629) Ruby's home address was listed as Dallas, Texas on one card and 4727 Homer, Dallas, Tex. on the other. (630) In the space for "Address during stay in Cuba" was written "Capri Hotel."(631)

  225. Captain Filipe Villa from the Cuban Ministry of the interior informed the committee that:

    The only reason we still have these cards is because in 1963 Ruby is converted into an important person when he participates in the assassination of JFK by killing the alleged assassin Oswald. (632)

    Captain Villa made the following statement about Jack Ruby:

    Concretely on Jack Ruby. The information that we have about him is that an individual who have that name or with that name filled out arrival airport cards whose photographs we gave you this morning. This man was in Cuba on two occasions. The first in August 1959, he remained in Cuba until September 11, 1959. The 12th of September he entered Cuba once again and he leaves the following day,. The reason we got this information is because we kept records of who entered our country and on those cards the dates appear. We will be glad to show you the original documents tomorrow. This is practically all the information of Ruby possessed by the Cuban Government. The cause of this: Ruby came to Cuba in 1959. There was no reason to monitor his visit to Cuba. He traveled as a tourist. We unfortunately do not know what his activities were during the period he was in Cuba. We could not tell you if he interviewed with Santo Trafficante or not. It is true that at that same period of time Trafficante was being detained in Cuba. But we cannot unite both facts. Trafficante was really not a prisoner. He was a foreigner being detained. That is to say, that he was at a camp in Havana named Trescornia where foreigners with certain problems were detained for a period of time. But there were no controls as to visitors, and because of this we unfortunately don't know whether the Trafficante-Ruby visit occurred. This link between the two of them which we also consider extremely important we cannot establish. (633)

  226. When McWillie was confronted with the information supplied by the Cuban Government, he denied that Ruby was in Cuba from August 8 to September 11, and he also denied that during that period Ruby left Cuba and returned on all-day trip. (634)

    Referring to the tourist cards, McWillie stated:

    That is clear all right but that is not right, because when he came to visit me he stayed 6 days at the most, he stayed 6 days and there is one foul-up with that ticket or something. If he had stayed there a month, I would say a month, I wouldn't be ashamed to say it. Jack Ruby was that kind of fellow that 6 days would be long enough to be around him. I am sure he wasn't there a month. (635)

  227. Regarding Trafficante, Captain Villa stated Trafficante was detained in Cuba on June 6, 1959,(636) as a result of a request from the Bureau of Narcotics of INTERPOL.(637) The Cuban authorities held Trafficante for investigation of a violation of article 19B of the Cuban laws, which covers the expulsion of foreigners who engage m immoral or anti-government activities.(638) Trafficante was put in Trescornia as a preventive measure while an investigation was being conducted.(639) No proof was produced, and he was released on August 18, 1959.(640) ,Sometime after August 18, 1959, Commandante Manuel Piniero interviewed Trafficante and gave him 24 hours to leave the country. (641) The Cuban Government had no records of when Trafficante actually left Cuba, but estimated it could have been a few days after August 18 or a month later. (642) Captain Villa informed the committee that Trafficante's associates during 1959 were probably Giuseppe de George, Charles Tourine, Jr., Jake Lansky, Lucien Rivard, Dino Cellini, and Henry Saavedra.(643) Captam Villa stated that there was no information that John Wilson Hudson was ever a detainee in Cuba.(644) The committee also interviewed Jose, Verdacia. Verdacia was the Chief Warden of Trescornia in 1959.(645) He provided a detailed description of the camp, along with a sketch of its layout. (646) He explained that all of the individuals connected with gambling casinos were detained in one "pavillion." (647) They were permitted to have visitors at the camp,(648) but there was no visitor's log.(649) Verdacia remembered Trafficante, Dino Cellini, Charles Tourine, Jr. and Jake Lansky as being present at the camp.(650) He was not familiar with the name McWillie or Ruby.(651) Verdacia did not recognize the name John Wilson Hudson; however, he did say:

    I remember an English journalist who stayed there for some days. He had been deported from Argentina. I remember that he used to tell me stories of his staying m Argentina. That he had problems there with Peron because he used to make funny stories about Rita Peron, Peron's wife, because there was soap by the name of Rita,. * * * I remember the stories that he used tell me. I don't have any idea of him. * * * I don't have any recollection of him being linked to these other people. I don't remember whether his staying there coincided with the stay of these other people. I don't know his name, but I do remember the man. (652)

  228. Wilson Hudson had in fact been a journalist in Argentina years earlier. Verdacia could not remember if "the British ,journalist" was at Trescornia at the same time as Trafficante and the others. If the journalist was there at the same time, he would have been housed in the same pavillion as the other detainees connected with the gambling industry.(653)

    Handwriting Analysis

  229. In order to determine the authenticity of the two Cuban tourist cards and the postcard sent to Alice Nichols, the committee had them examined by two handwriting experts. The experts were given photographs of the tourist cards and the original postcard.(654) For the sake of comparison, one expert was given a check drawn on the Merchants State Bank, Dallas, Tex., dated July 26, 1969, payable to the Dallas Times Herald and signed, "Vegas Club, Jack Ruby."(655) This expert was also provided with a photograph of a sheet of yellow legal memorandum paper bearing nine specimens of Jack Ruby's signature and three one-sentence paragraphs in his handwriting, dated July 18, 1964. (656) The other expert reviewed the original of the yellow legal memorandum at the National Archives and was provided with several photographs of U.S. income tax returns signed by Jack Ruby.(657)

  230. Both experts concluded that the writing and signature, Jack on the postcard and the two signatures, Jack Ruby," on the tourist cards, were written by the same author of the signatures on the legal memorandum paper and the other samples. (658) One expert, Charles C. Scott, qualified his conclusion regarding the tourist cards by stating that because his examination was based on photographs and not originals, his opinion was subject to modification should the originals be submitted and reveal contradictory information not disclosed by the photographs. (659)

    Other Information

  231. The FBI interviewed three individuals who recalled meeting a man named Jack Ruby while they were visiting in Cuba. They. were two attorneys and an architect, all from Chicago, who had visited Cuba during the Labor Day weekend in 1959--September 4, 5, and 6.(660) They had all visited the Tropicana during their stay and recalled that a man had introduced himself to them. Sherwin Braun believed the man gave his name as Jack Ruby. Jay Bishov stated the man was identical to the man in a picture he had seen in the papers of Jack Ruby.After introducing himself, the man, believed to be Ruby, stated he was originally from Chicago but now owned some sort of nightclub gambling establishment in Texas, possibly Dallas. He invited the three men to visit his club.

  232. All three individuals were reinterviewed by the FBI on April 16, 1964. (661) Both Jack Marcus and Sherwin Braun estimated that the date of their meeting Ruby was the third or last night of their stay in Cuba. (662)

  233. The FBI also interviewed William Edward Howard, a friend of Ruby who according to the FBI report, stated that Ruby made a trip around 1959, "just about the time Fidel Castro took over Cuba." He stated that Ruby went to Cuba to visit "McKinney" (probably McWillie), who operated the Tropicana Club in Havana. (663)

  234. A former employee of Ruby's, Robert Larkin, told the FBI that 4 or 5 years prior to the assassination he had managed the Vegas Club for the summer months, "during which period Ruby vacationed in Cuba." (664)

  235. Regarding Ruby's other activities in August and September 1959, an FBI report of a review of the records of the Merchants State Bank states that Ruby visited his safety deposit box in Dallas on August 9,1, 1959, and on September 4, 1959.(665) Another FBI report by SA Charles Flynn indicates he met with Jack Ruby in Dallas on August 6, 1959, and on August 31, 1959. (666)

  236. The U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) provided the committee with records that substantiate the Cuban information that Ruby took all-day trip to Cuba on September 12 and 13, 1959. (667) The records consisted of a Xerox copy of the record of departure of Pan American Airways flight 415 of September 12, 1959, from Miami, Fla., destination, Havana, Cuba, and a copy of the record of Rubys departure as a passenger on that flight.(668) A copy of the general declaration .and record of arrival of Delta Airlines flight 750 of September 13, 1959, from Havana, Cuba, to New Orleans, La., was also provided, along with a copy of the record of Ruby's arrival as a passenger on that flight.(669) INS was unable to provide any information about other trips Ruby may have made to Cuba.

  237. A memorandum from the deputy director of plans of the CIA to the FBI provided additional information about John Wilson Hudson. (670) A "usually reliable source" reported on August 8, 1951, that Carl John Wilson Hudson was a Spanish citizen of British descent residing in Chile and a contact of Bert Sucharov, a suspected Soviet agent in Santiago, Chile.(671) Wilson was born in Liverpool, England, on December 29, 1916.(672) After arriving in Chile in 1939, in his capacity of journalist Wilson reportedly began "a one-man crusade against the British Government."(673) Another source described as "usually reliable" and "whose information was evaluated as 'possibly true' "reported in 1952 that Wilson was "very probably an intelligence agent." (674)

  238. It was also reported by a "usually reliable source" that on June 18, 1959, Carl John Wilson, a British journalist, sent a cable to the British Parliament and the British Trade Union Federation claiming he had confirmed that the U.S. military attaches in the Caribbean were providing military advice to dictators. In this cable, Wilson reportedly protested these actions m the name of humanity."(675) Another report from another "usually reliable source" stated that Wilson was involved in a planned attack from Cuba on Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua, during the weekend of June 27-28, 1959. (676) Associated Press reported on July 1, 1959, that the Cuban home of Capt. Paul Hughes was raided, leading to the seizure of:

    A large arms cache and air-sea invasion plans and the detention of two other Americans, a British journalist, several Cubans, and nearly 200 would be members of an expeditionary force against the regime of Nicaraguan President Luis Somoza. (677)

    The article stated that "the British subject was identified as Carl John Wilson, a freelance journalist who had been in Havana several weeks." (678)

  239. The committee was unable to locate John Wilson Hudson. response to the committee's inquiries, the Metropolitan Police in London, England, contacted unspecified government agencies, but these efforts were unsuccessful. (679) It has been alleged that Hudson is dead. (680)


  240. There is very strong evidence that Ruby made more than one trip to Cuba, contrary to the statements made by both Ruby and McWillie. The tourist cards show that Ruby entered Cuba on August 8, 1959, and left on September 11, 1959, returned on September 12, 1959, and departed again on September 13, 1959. These supplement records the committee obtained from the INS showing that Ruby left Cuba on September 11, 1959, traveling to Miami, returned to Cuba on September 12, and traveled on to New Orleans on September 13, 1959. The Cuban Government could not state with certainty whether these were the only regular commercial flights Ruby made in and out of Cuba. These records, along with Ruby's safety deposit box records and SA Flynn's reports of his visits with Ruby, indicate Ruby made at least three trips to Cuba in August and September of 1959.

  241. The following is a possible scenario for these trips. Ruby met with Special Agent Flynn on August 6, 1959. According to the Cuban tourist cards, he went to Cuba on August 8, 1959. He returned to United States sometime before August 21, 1959, the date he visited his bank. It is possible that during this period between August 8, 1959, and August 21, 1959, Ruby took the l-week trip that both he and McWillie mentioned. Ruby again met with Flynn on August 31, 1959, and visited the bank on September 4, 1959. Sometime between the 4th and the 11th of September 1959, Ruby must have gone to Cuba again, because the three Chicagoans had met him there on Labor Day weekend, September 4, 5, and 6, 1959. According to the Cuban tourist cards and the INS records, Ruby left Cuba on September 11, 1959, then returned from Miami on September 19,, 1959, departing for New Orleans on September 13, 1959.

  242. This sequence of events contradicts Ruby's and McWillie's statements that Ruby made only one trip to Cuba. The weight of the evidence supports the possibility that Ruby visited Cuba on at least three occasions.

  243. Regarding McWillie's explanation that he invited both Ruby and Zoppi to Cuba, this was a trip entirely separate from the August and September 1959 visits. Zoppi stated he canceled the proposed trip to Cuba because he wanted to review a show in Las Vegas. Of the several shows Zoppi mentioned, none occurred in the summer of 1959. In fact, all of them were scheduled for the winter months. Zoppi also stated he canceled the trip altogether. because of Castro's takeover, which occurred on January 1, 1959. This supports the assumption that this particular trip was originally scheduled for. December 1959, which is Zoppi's best guess. It has not been possible to determine, however, if Ruby went on to Cuba without Zoppi. It is possible that Ruby did do so, as he told Zoppi he would depart as scheduled and meet Zoppi in Havana "right ,after the first of the year." (681) Zoppi also stated that he "vaguely remembers that Ruby told him he had a good time in Cuba."(682) In addition, McKeown stated that in January 1959, Ruby told him he had been in Cuba once on vacation.(683) William Edward Howard also stated Ruby made a trip in 1958 or 1959 "just about the time Fidel Castro took over Cuba."(684) The allegation that Ruby had visited Cuba in 1962 is probably false. The committee was unable to obtain any corroboration for it. This story was conveyed to the United States after ,the assassination by an individual with substantial ties to the anti-Castro community. It could well have been an effort by anti-Castro elements to link Ruby to Castro and thus to a Cuban plot to assassinate the President. There was no evidence that this was the case.

  244. Based on the curious nature of the all-day trip to Cuba via Miami and the existence of a third trip to Cuba, vacationing was probably not Ruby's sole reason for traveling to Cuba. The inference seems reasonable that Ruby was at least serving as a kind of courier on behalf of gambling interests in Cuba when he traveled to Miami from Cuba for 1 day and stayed in Cuba 1 day on his way to New Orleans. This inference was supported by a number of facts, including: McWillies previous trips to Miami on behalf of the Fox brothers, who owned the Tropicana, to transfer funds to a Miami bank; the call from McWillie to gambling figure Meyer Panitz in Miami to inform him that Ruby was coming from Cuba and the resulting meetings between Panitz and Ruby; and the continuing need of Cuban casino operators to protect their assets from possible seizure by the Cuban Government. In dealing with casino operators, Ruby necessarily would have had contacts with organized crime figures and their associates, including possibly some who had suffered detention at the bands of the Cuban Government.

  245. It has not been possible to corroborate the allegation that Ruby visited Trafficante at Trescornia. John Wilson Hudson was not located, and Trafficante denied any such meeting, although he did recall an individual fitting Hudson's description. Jose Verdacia also recalled a British journalist who was at Trescornia.


    McKeown Incident

  246. Treatment by the Warren Commission.---The FBI conducted the investigation of Robert McKeown for the Warren Commission. McKeown initially became a target of investgation when Jack Ruby stated in an interview with the FBI on December 21, 1963, that "at time when Castro was popular in the United States," he had read of person in the vicinity of Houston who had run guns to Castro. (685) Ruby mentioned that he had attempted to contact this person by telephone about the possibility of selling some jeeps or similar equipment to persons interested in their sale to Cuba. (686) Ruby claimed nothing developed from these efforts.(687) He told the interviewers, SA Clements and SA Hall:

    When Castro got in, I read in paper where a guy at Bashore sold guns to Cuba when Castro was popular here--going to new and democratic country and I wanted to sell jeeps and get surplus to make a buck. Tauney, or Elargi, or something * * * I can't recall his name. I called a lawyer in Houston and they said I was too little. (888)

  247. In his testimony before the Warren Commission, Ruby provided a further description of the man he had contacted: (689)

    I think his name was Longley out of Bay--something-Texas, on the Bayshore. And somehow he was, I read the article about him that he was given a jail term for smuggling guns to Castro. This is the early part of their revolution. (690)

  248. Dallas assistant district attorney William Alexander told the FBI on January 14, 1964, that while he was attempting to ascertain the identity of this person, a source informed him that Ruby had previously contacted a Davis, (691) an ex-convict believed to be living in Beaumont, Tex. Alexander said that the source thought the Houston FBI office handled an investigation of Davis, which resulted in a conviction for gun-running activities. (692)

  249. On January 17, 1964, the Houston FBI office advised that Davis could not be identified at Houston or Beaumont, Tex. It did conjecture, however, that Ruby was probably referring to Robert Ray McKeown. (693) This was a logical assumption as McKeown had been arrested by Federal agents in 1958 for conspiring to smuggle guns to Castro, for which McKeown received a 2-year suspended sentence and five-year probation.(694) In addition, Ruby could very well have read about McKeown in the newspaper because when Castro visited Houston in April 1959, McKeown had met with him at the Houston Airport. A photograph in the Houston Chronicle recorded the event on April 28, 1959; an article accompanying the photograph quoted Castro as saying that when McKeown could move to Cuba, he would be given post in the government or some franchises. (695) There was also an article in the March 12, 1958, issue of the Houston Chronicle regarding the weapons seized from McKeown's home. (696) McKeown also showed the committee a newspaper clipping dated January 3, 1959, headlined "Gunrunner Hails Castro Victory," which McKeown believed may have been the impetus for Ruby's visit. (697)

  250. When the FBI located McKeown and interviewed him on January 24, 1964, McKeown stated that about 1 week after Castro assumed control of Cuba. Anthony "Boots" Ayo, a patrolman for the Harris County Sheriff's Office, informed him that someone from Dallas, Tex. had been calling the Harris County Sheriff's Office in an effort to locate him. (698) According to McKeown, he told Ayo to give the caller the telephone number of his place of business, the J and M Drive-In.(699) According to the FBI report, McKeown stated that about 1 hour later, a person called him, identified himself as Jack Rubenstein from Dallas, Tex, affirmed McKeown's connections with Castro and solicited McKeown's assistance in obtaining the release of three people Castro had detained in Cuba. Rubenstein offered McKeown $5,000 per person, stating that someone m Los Vegas could provide the money. McKeown said he would accept the offer on the condition that he first received some money. Rubenstein replied by saying he would think about it and call again. About 3 weeks after the call, McKeown stated that a man visited the J and M and offered him $25,000 for a letter of introduction to Castro. The visitor, who did not identify himself, stated that he had access to a large number of jeeps in Shreveport, La, which he wished to sell to Cuba. McKeown said that he would provide the letter upon a $5,000 cash down payment. McKeown said that the man "never returned nor did he ever see him again." (700)

  251. McKeown told the FBI his visitor strongly resembled Jack Ruby;(701) McKeown stated, however, "he is not certain that the above-described telephone caller from Dallas or the man who personally appeared at the J and M Drive-In was identical with the Jack Ruby who killed Lee Harvey Oswald."(702) McKeown also stated that he knew no one by the name of Davis who was convicted for running guns to Cuba. (703)

  252. The FBI did not conduct any further interviews of McKeown, nor did they ever confront Ruby with the contention that Ruby had visited McKeown personally. The FBI did interview Anthony 5. "Boots" Ayo, who corroborated McKeown's statement that Ayo had contacted him regarding someone calling from Dallas. (704) The FBI provided the Warren Commission with a report revealing that McKeown was under FBI investigation in connection with the activities of Carlos Prio Socarras and that McKeown had been charged, together with various other persons, with conspiracy to smuggle guns and related equipment to Cuba. (705)

  253. The Warren Commission neither interviewed McKeown nor took his testimony. Further, the Commission did not question Ruby about McKeown in either an interview or a hearing. On September 23, 1964, very much later in the investigation, a Warren Commission attorey did telephone Eva Grant, Jack Ruby's sister, and question her about a sale of jeeps to Cuba.(706) The memorandum of this interview states:

    * * * she had heard about this venture in the spring or summer of 1959 or 1960. She said that she had been present during a conversation with her brother, although it was not clear if anyone else was present. According to Mrs. Grant, her brother was contacted by a person who owned eight jeeps and wished to locate a buyer. She said her brother saw this as an opportunity to act as a broker just as one might be a broker for any conventional item of merchandise. She also was not sure where the prospective buyer or seller was located, although when I mentioned Houton to her, she indicated that there was someone in Houston connected with the transaction. She indicated, although her answers were not specific, that the prospective sale was never completed. She also said that she never considered the prospective sale worthwhile since it was her understanding that Cuba was getting all the jeeps it needed from the United States and would not have any use for eight jeeps. She also was unable to give any specific information about the jeeps although she speculated that they were broken-down jeeps left over from World War II. (707)

  254. Additional Statements by McKeown.---McKeown was interviewed on August 27, 1976. (708) He stated that shortly after Castro took over, a deputy sheriff came to the J and M Drive-In and informed him that someone from Dallas was attempting to telephone him. (709) McKeown gave the deputy sheriff permission to provide the caller with his phone number.(710) About 30 minutes later, McKeown received a call from a person who said his name was Rubenstein and that he was from Dallas. (711) After commenting that he thought McKeown's name was Davis, the caller stated that he knew five people being detained in Cuba and wanted to know if McKeown could obtain their release. (712)

  255. This is the first time McKeown ever mentioned Ruby saying anything about "Davis." It was also the first mention that five people were to be released; previously it had been only three.

  256. Rubenstein then terminated the call after saying he would visit McKeown to review the details.

  257. McKeown stated that soon after this call, a person personally contacted him and told him he had access to some jeeDs in Shreveport, La., and some slot machines in New Mexico.(713) He desired to sell the equipment to Castro and consequently wanted a letter of introduction. McKeown replied by saying this would cost $5,000 "up front." (714) The visitor mentioned that he knew some members of the Mafia in Cuba and had visited the country once while on vacation. (715) The visitor also mentioned (first name unknown) Goldberg as the individual who possessed the jeeps in Louisiana. (716) McKeown thought this visit occurred in January 1959 and provided a newspaper clipping dated January 3, 1959, headlined, "Gunrunner Hails Castro Victory." This article may have been the impetus for the visit, accord* ing to McKeown. (717)

  258. During this interview, McKeown also commented that his visitor came to see him three times, a statement he claimed he had told the Warren Commission. (718) Further, McKeown said he knew it was Ruby because the person identified himself as "Rubenstein from Dallas."(719) McKeown originally stated that he had received one visit from a man who did not identify himself but who strongly resembled Jack Ruby.(720) McKeown stated that he never gave any letter or assistance to Ruby because he didn't receive any money. (721)

  259. McKeown testified before the committee on April 12, 1978. (722) He said a person identifying himself as Jack Rubenstein (723) called him and said he wanted a letter of introduction to assist in acquiring the return of several people in jail in Cuba.(724) Rubenstein said that he would soon visit him to discuss the matter and also mentioned that he thought McKeown's name was Davis.(725) A few days later a man visited McKeown and said he was the one who had called. He said he wanted a letter of introduction to Castro for which he would pay $25,000. McKeown agreed to provide the letter if Rubenstein would furnish $10,000 up front. (726) McKeown mentioned that Ruby said he had access to various jeeps, slot machines and similar items. (727)

  260. McKeown maintained that Rubenstein revisited him three or four times. He did not tell the FBI on January 28, 1964, that the man never came to see him again. (728) McKeown testified he never received any money and, therefore, never provided the letter.(729)

  261. McKeown also testified that he believed he told the FBI about the Ruby visit some time before the assassination and that he visited the FBI the day after the assassination to inform it about Ruby.(730) The committee, however, was unable to locate any records concerning a personal FBI contact with McKeown before the January 1964 interview.

  262. McKeown's testimony indicates that his close association with Castro prompted many people to ask him to .assist them in affairs pertaining to Cuba and Castro. For instance, McKeown said that after the United States broke off diplomatic relations, he contacted Castro to obtain the release of three persons being detained in Cuba who were close friends of McKeown's brother.(731) McKeown also maintained that a Jack Porter, who he says was a campaign manager for Eisenhower, contacted him around 1959 in regard to approaching Castro. (732)

  263. Other statements regarding McKeawn.--A CBS news special in 1975 entitled "The American Assassins" briefly mentioned mat Ruby had come to see McKeown in 1959, offering him $25,000 for a letter of introduction to Fidel Castro. (733) The transcript then noted that Ruby "never came back" to obtain the letter.(734) During the show, McKeown first publicly acknowledged a contact between himself and Lee Harvey Oswald, stating that a few weeks prior to the assassination Oswald had visited him attempting to obtain machineguns and bazookas. (735)

  264. The British Broadcasting Corporation also interviewed McKeown. (736) McKeown stated on this occasion that a person identifying himself as Jack Rubenstein had called him from Dallas regarding his association with Castro and requested his assistance m releasing some people from Cuba. McKeown told the caller he could not discuss the matter because of his upcoming trial (McKeown was sentenced in October 1958).

  265. McKeown stated that the following day a person who claimed he was from Dallas, and who McKeown said was Ruby, visited him and mentioned that he wanted to visit Cuba on vacation and wanted letter of introduction to Castro for which he would pay $25,000. Ruby also mentioned that he had some jeeps and some slot machines which he wished to sell to Castro. Ruby said he had never been to Cuba. Ruby then left for Houston and said he would return for the letter. McKeown told him that he would provide the letter for $12,500 up front and $12,500 later, with the entire transaction contingent on his meeting Castro. Ruby returned the next day, and the two talked and visited some Cuban friends of McKeown's, but Ruby never provided any cash. (This was the only time McKeown mentioned visiting some Cuban friends with Ruby.) After returning again the following day, Ruby still failed to produce any money. McKeown said that in the end he never provided a letter and that Ruby never returned. (737)

  266. When questioned by the FBI, McWillie was asked if he knew Robert Ray McKeown. He responded that he did not. (738) He also denied any contact with anyone concerning the sale of jeeps or guns to Cuba, smuggling refugees out of Cuba, or obtaining the release of any of Castro's prisoners.(739) McWillie did stateed wrote or called Ruby from Los Vegas about obtaining a pistol. Subsequently, Ruby sent the gun, but McWillie did not pick it up at the post office.(740) Ruby, however, indicated that McWillie requested Ruby send four guns to him in Cuba.(741) When McWillie was asked if he had asked Ruby to send some guns to him in Cuba, McWillie stated:

    No, sir, I have been asked that a dozen times and I didn't do that. In the first place, Jack Ruby couldn't have sent any guns to Cuba and I couldn't have gotten them in Cuba. If I had, I hate to think what would have happened to me. (742)

  267. The committee also interviewed Ayo, who said he knew McKeown very well in 1959 when he was employed as a patrolman working out of the Harris County Sheriff's office. (743) He stated that while on patrol, he was contacted by the sheriff, who asked him to go to McKeown's place of employment, get the phone number and relay the information back to the office. McKeown gave him the number, and Ayo did as requested. Ayo stated he was not informed by the sheriff of the reason for the request. (744)

  268. Inconsistencies in the McKeown material.--In addition to the obvious differences between Ruby's and McKeown's recollections of their mutual association, important, substantive inconsistencies permeate McKeown's accounts. Some of the key ones are:

    (1) How and when McKeown determined that the person who had visited him was Jack Ruby;
    (2) The number of people Ruby wished to get released from Cuba;
    (3) When the Ruby-McKeown contacts occurred;
    (4) How many times Ruby visited McKeown in person;
    (5) The amount of time between the phone call and the personal visit or visits;
    (6) Whether McKeown ever heard Ruby ask about Davis; and
    (7) When McKeown first spoke to the FBI about these contacts.

  269. Analysis.--It has not been possible to confirm or refute McKeown's allegations. The most that can be said is that Ruby probably made some kind of contact with someone, possibly McKeown, in Texas regarding something related to Cuba. This statement alone is consistent with the inference that Ruby's trips to Cuba were not merely for vacation. If McKeown's allegations are in fact true, which again the committee was unable to determine, this would lead even more credence to the committee's theory regarding Ruby's trips.

  270. If Ruby did in fact take at least three trips to Cuba and on at least one of these trips was acting as a courier, there is a strong possibility that he was interested in pursuing other interests, such as selling jeeps or guns to Cuba or obtaining the release of prisoners. This possibility is supported not only by McKeown's statements, but also by Ruby's. Ruby admitted he had contacted someone regarding the sale of jeeps to Castro.(745) Ruby also reportedly told Wally Weston, "They're going to find out about Cuba, they're going to find out about the guns."(746) Ruby's repeated insistence that he only took one trip to Cuba is an additional indication that he was involved in activities not normally associated with vacation. Selling merchandise to Cuba would also be consistent with Ruby's history of involvement with several money-making schemes e.g., twist boards, razor blades, log cabins and pizza crusts. (747)

    Thomas Eli Davis III, Allegation

  271. After Jack Ruby told the FBI that he had contacted an individual in Houston, Dallas assistant district attorney William Alexander reported on January 14, 1964, that he had learned from some source that Ruby had contact with a Davis, described as an ex-convict believed living in Beaumont, Tex.(748) The Houston FBI office reported on January 14, 1964, that they had failed to locate a Davis either in Houston or Beaumont, Tex. (749) In a March 19, 1964, memorandum, Warren Commission attorneys Hubert and Griffin wrote:

    Ruby has acknowledged independently that, prior to the time that Castro fell into disfavor in the United States, he had been interested in selling jeeps to Cuba. Ruby stated that he contacted a man in Beaumont, Tex., whose name he recalled was Davis. The FBI has been unable to identify anyone engaged in the sale of arms to Cuba who might be identical with the person named Davis. (750)

  272. Seth Kantor, in his book "Who Was Jack Ruby?," identifies Davis as Thomas Eli Davis III.(751) According to Kantor, Ruby allegedly told his first lawyer, Tom Howard (deceased), that he had intended to begin a regular gunrunning business with Davis. (752) Kantor also alleged that Davis was in jail in Algiers at the time of the President's assassination (753) and was bailed out by QJ/WIN, a CIA. employee.(754) Kantor also stated that Davis was killed in September 1973 while stealing copper wire from an abandoned rock crusher site in Wise County, Tex. (755)

  273. A review of Davis' FBI file indicates that in June 1958, Davis attempted to rob a bank in Detroit for which he received 5 years probation.(756) Davis' probation supervision was transferred on October 7, 1958, to the U.S. Probation Office in Fort Worth, Tex., and again on September 20, 1960, to the Probation Office in Beaumont, Tex. (757) His probation was terminated on February 21, 1962. (758)

  274. An FBI memorandum, dated June 25, 1963, reports that Davis:

    In May 1963 placed ad in Los Angeles, Calif., newspaper offering military.-type employment to former military. personnel with specialized backgrounds. Investigation instituted to determine if possible neutrality matter violation existed or if matter of intelligence interest to this Bureau. Persons who answered ad interviewed and it was determined subject [Davis] indicated the military-type employment consisted of going to Haiti with an independent group to overthrow the Haitian President Duvalier. Subject interviewed and it was determined he is employed as a freelance writer who was attempting to develop material for an article he hoped to publish. The .article was to deal with the soldier-of-fortune and the method used in organizing an army and the type of men employed in such an army. He was desirous of learning, the attitude of the U.S. Government concerning the type of laws violated and possible punishment for any such violations. To determine this, he placed above mentioned ad in the newspaper. * * *(759)

  275. A May 1963 airtel to the SAC in Los Angeles from the Director of the FBI advised that the "CIA through liaison channels" had informed the Bureau "that the matter designated in retel was not CIA- operation." (760) This airtel was probably referring to Davis' actions discussed in the above FBI memorandum.

  276. The FBI file reflects that the Bureau received several State Department telegrams in December 1963 that concerned Davis. (761) An FBI memorandum, dated December 20, 1963, to the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State states:

    Reference is made to the incoming telegram received by your Department on December 10, 1963, from Tangier, Morocco, your control number 6690. It was stated therein that Thomas Eli Davis, Jr., was being held by the Moroccan National Security Police because of a letter in his handwriting which referred in passing to Oswald and to Kennedy assassination. (762)

  277. The State Department's passport file indicated Davis applied passport on January 31, 1963, in New Orleans. A State Department telegram from Tangier, dated December 10, 1963, states that Davis was arrested on December 8, 1963, for trying to sell pistols. His wife was also with him. The telegram comments:

    Moroccan National Security Police [Interpoll claim attempted sale of pistols minor but holding Davis on basis rambling, somewhat cryptic, unsigned letter in Davis' hand* writing which refers in passing to "Oswald" and to Kennedy assassination. Letter also suggests intended addressee attorney Thomas G. Proctor donate money to Johnson's campaign. Proctor's address: Hotel Iroquois, 99 West 44th Street, New York. (763)

    The committee was unable to locate Proctor.

  278. It was also reported in this telegram that Mrs. Davis told the consulate general that Davis was a "soldier of fortune." She said he worked in Indochina, Indonesia, Algeria, .and Cuba, always on the "Western side."(764) She stated they left the United States on November 2, 1963, and arrived in Tangiers via London, Paris, and Madrid on November 28, 1963. (765)

  279. Analysis.---Due to limitations of time and resources, the committee did not thoroughly investigate Ruby's possible connection with Davis. It did not interview his wife or other relatives, nor did it determine exactly what Davis said about the assassination. It was not possible, therefore, to confirm Kantor's allegation that the Davis to whom Ruby referred was Thomas Eli Davis III, or that Ruby was going into the gunrunning business with him. It was also not possible to determine if a CIA employee, QJ/WIN, assisted in the release of Davis from the Moroccan jail. QJ/WIN's CIA file was reviewed but revealed nothing about Davis. The committee made no effort to interview QJ/WIN, whose role in the CIA's assassination planning apparatus, code-named "Executive Action," was detailed in the report, "Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders, of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence in 1975.

    Meeting with the Fox brothers

  280. During his Warren Commission testimony, Ruby identified the Fox brothers as the owners of the Tropicana. (766) He indicated the Fox brothers came to Dallas "to collect a debt that some man owed the Cotton Gin Co. here"(767) and that he had dinner with one of the Fox brothers at the Luau Restaurant at Love Field in Dallas. (768) Ruby stated:

    There is a very prominent attorney in Dallas, McCord. McCord represents the Fox brothers here. They called me because the Fox brothers wanted to see me, and I came down to the hotel. And Mrs. McWillie Mr. McWillie was married to her at that time--and if I recall, I didn't show them off at the airport at that time. This is when they were still living in Havana, the Fox brothers. We had dinner at--how do you pronounce that restaurant at Love Field ? Luau ? That serves this Chinese food. Dave McCord, I was in his presence, and I was invited out to dinner, and there was an attorney by the name of Leon. Is he associated with McCord ? And there was McLane. (769)

  281. The committee spoke with David McCord on September 28, 1978.(770) When asked about the dinner with Ruby and one of the Fox brothers, McCord stated that the meeting did occur at Love Field at the Luau Restaurant but involved McCord, Ruby, and the Guadano brothers, Robert and Bernie.(771) McCord stated that the Guadanos were businessmen from Great Neck, and had business dealings with McCord in a company operating in Honduras. (772) McCord claimed the meeting was social in nature. (773) The committee did not locate the Guadanos.

  282. In his book, Kantor disclosed some information about McCord which tended to indicate McCord's credibility may be questionable. He stated that McCord:

    Gave up his license to practice law rather than face disbarment proceedings when charged with involvement in a shady securities deal. Then, in July 1976, McCord was arrested on numerous other charges, including conspiracy and mail fraud involved in a bogus silver mine investment scheme. (774)

    The committee did not confirm this information.

  283. The other attorney who was allegedly present at this dinner, Alfred E. McLane, was killed in a taxi on March 16, 1963. (775) Both the Fox brothers were also deceased.

  284. There is additional evidence that Ruby did know the Foxes. Ruby stated in an FBI interview that while in Cuba he spent all of his time in Havana "except to go to a small area on one occasion with one of the Fox brothers who owned the Tropicana."(776) Ruby also stated that he was delayed by Cuban customs agents because of the discovery in his luggage of a photograph of one of the Fox brothers. (777) McWillie also stated that, he introduced Ruby to the Foxes. (778)

    Earl Ruby Telegram to Havana

  285. An Internal Revenue Service report, dated January 9, 1964, contained an analysis of long distance telephone calls originating from Earl Ruby's (Jack Ruby's brother) residence in Springfield, Mich., and from Cobo Cleaners in Detroit, Mich.(779) On January 9, 1964, IRS Agent Anstet questioned Earl Ruby about the long distance calls he made in 196'2. These calls included a telegram sent on April 1, 1962, to Havana, Cuba, from Cobo Cleaners. When asked about the telegram, Earl Ruby stated, "That's a telegram isn't it--I don't remember. (780) Agent Anstet later made the statement in his report that:

    Comments were offered easily and freely until the item of the Havana telegram. After a brief pause in the conversation Agent Anstet specifically requested a comment on this item. After another pause the above-mentioned comment was made. (781)

  286. Earl Ruby, in his testimony before the Warren Commission, again was unable to recall this telegram. (782)

  287. The committee deposed Earl Ruby on July 20, 1978. At that time, Earl Ruby indicated that perhaps he had sent the telegram to McWillie because "he is the only one I would have known in Cuba? (783) Later, however, Earl Ruby stated, referring to McWillie, The first time I ever saw him or talked to him was a year or two ago in Vegas,"(784) although he knew of McWillie through Jack.(785) Earl Ruby also stated, "I swear on my oath that I don't know anything about it except that it is possible I forgot and I may have sent McWillie a telegram."(786) Earl Ruby admitted that if the telegram were sent it would have been sent by himself and not one of his employees. (787)

  288. On August 17, 1978, Earl Ruby wrote the following letter to the committee:

    Regarding telegram alleged sent to Cuba in 196'2. I checked with post office here and learned that there are six Cubans in the United States and now I'm sure the telegram in question was sent to a Cuba here in the United States and not to Havana, Cuba, or any other place in Cuba. I therefore must go on record as stating that at no time did I ever send a telegram to Havana, Cuba or any place in Cuba. There is a Cuba in each of the following States:Alabama. Illinois, Kansas, New Mexico, New York, and Ohio. (788)

    The IRS report listing the telegram specifically stated, "Havana, Cuba;" however, the committee was unable to obtain the original telegram.

  289. Earl Ruby testified before the committee on September '26, 1978. At that time, he stated:

    Again, I wish to state under oath I never sent the telegram. I have no idea what took place. It wouldn't be the first time that there was an error in billing our telephone. As counsel brought up something that I didn't even think of, he said if it had been a telegram to Havana, Cuba, that it would have been listed as a cablegram. Also, again I wish to state that I had no idea or any thought of sending a, devious type of telegram to Cuba for some reason or another. I would be very foolish to send from my own telephone, I could have gone to a local Western Union and done something like that. So, again I wish to state under oath I never sent a telegram to Havana, Cuba. I don't know how it happened. That is about it.(789)

    Jack Ruby's familiarity with the Fair Play for Cuba Committee

  290. Another small indication that Jack Ruby was at least familiar with some Cuban activities occurred during the night of November 22, 1963. At that time there was a press conference involving Oswald at the Dallas police station. Ruby was present. (790) During the conference, District Attorney Henry Wade was asked about Oswald's being a Communist. According to Wade's testimony before the Warren Commission, this is what occurred:

    And I said, well, now, I don't know about that but they found some literature, I understand, some literature dealing with Free Cuba movement. Following this-and so I looked up and Jack Ruby is in the audience and he said, no, it is the Fair Play for Cuba Committee.(791)

    Nancy Perrin Rich Allegation

  291. Nancy Perrin Rich was first interviewed by the FBI on November 27, 1963.(792) At this time, she claimed that she worked for Ruby in July and August 1961. (793) Rich claimed that following her discharge from Ruby's employment, she attended four meetings in Dallas of a group arranging to sell Enfield rifles to Cuba. Rich stated Ruby was present at three of these meetings, as was a U.S. Army colonel.(794) Rich also stated she made her husband pull out of the operation and did not know if in fact any guns were sent to Cuba. (795) On December 3, 1963, Rich signed a statement which contained substantially the same version of events as in her FBI interview,(796) although she only mentioned two meetings.

  292. Rich was again interviewed by the FBI on December 5, 1963. (797) She said she worked for Ruby for 5 weeks and that "she did not like Ruby and that he had treated her badly and that she quit the job after a quarrel and fight with Ruby."(798) After leaving Ruby's employ, a "Dick C," a bartender who would arrange prostitution dates for her, arranged a meeting for her and her husband with an Army colonel "in connection with taking Cuban refugees from Cuba to Miami."(799) They met with the colonel, and "it was proposed that her husband pilot a boat to Cuba and pick up Cuban refugees and return them to Miami." (800) She attended a second meeting at which there were 8 to 12 people, including Jack Ruby.(801) Again they discussed the refugees. They also discussed sending Enfield rifles to Castro.(802) Rich claimed that at this meeting she said she did not want to have any part of these activities because she was loyal to the United States. According to Rich, Ruby then "made a speech, banging on the table, getting red in the face, but she could not recall exactly what he said." (803) Rich claimed there was a third meeting about 2 days later at which Ruby stayed 15 to 20 minutes. (804) Rich said she attended no more meetings. (805)

  293. At this time, Rich was given a polygraph examination. (806) She was extremely nervous and indicated she had taken the drug methadrine on the date of the examination. (807) The polygraph examiner concluded the test results were inconclusive based on Rich's past medical history and use of drugs. (808) The FBI report went on to state:

    The examiner observed however that significant emotional responses recorded by the polygraph led the examiner to believe Perrin's story regarding Cuban arms meetings is untrue. The examiner is of the opinion she has a tendency to delusions of grandeur. (809)

  294. The FBI also interviewed Cy Victorson, an attorney who represented Rich when she was arrested in August 1961. (810) Victorson described Rich as "being an habitual liar, who found it difficult to tell the truth." (811) A Dallas policeman also described Rich as a "psychopathic liar, who got great delight out of telling wild tales." (812) The FBI interviewed Dave Cherry, probably the "Dave C." to whom Rich referred.(813) Cherry indicated he knew Rich but claimed to know nothing about running guns to Cuba. (814)

  295. Rich testified before the Warren Commission on June 2, 1964, repeating substantially the same story. (815) She added that her husband was to receive $10,000 for his services,(816) and that they had counteroffered with $25,000. (817) Rich also added that when Ruby arrived at the second meeting, the "colonel rushed out into the kitchen or bedroom" and Ruby had a "bulge" in his pocket. (818) According to Rich, when Ruby came out of the room, the "bulge" was gone. (819)

  296. The committee did not investigate this allegation and possessed no additional information to refute or to confirm Rich's story.



  297. During the Warren Commission's investigation, counsels Burr W. Griffin and Leon D. Hubert had recommended in a memorandum that steps be taken to obtain and preserve a large number of telephone records involving Jack Ruby and numerous associates.(820) Specifically, they asked that the FBI be instructed to secure the records and that Commission Chairman Earl Warren address a letter to the various telephone companies to assure that the records not be destroyed. (821) While the Warren Commission and the FBI did obtain some of the records, an extensive effort to collect them was not carried out. Griffin stated that Commission general counsel J. Lee Rankin vetoed their full request because the effort would have been too burdensome and was too far-reaching. The Commission and the FBI failed to analyze systematically and to develop the data in those records which were obtained.(822)

  298. In a subsequent memorandum, Griffin and Hubert advised that they were in need of further assistance in evaluating the records, saying that they would need the services of additional personnel to undertake a competent analysis. (823) It was suggested by Rankin at one point that Chief Justice Warren's security guard might be able to devote some time to the project. (824) In the end, the actual analysis contemplated by Griffin and Hubert was never fully conducted because of limited time and resources.
    *Prepared by Howard Shapiro, research attorney, and Michael Ewing, staff researcher.


  299. The committee obtained the records acquired by the Warren Commission, as well as others from various sources, including the FBI, former New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison, and the telephone company (A. T. & T.). These records encompassed a broad range of persons both known and unknown to Jack Ruby (but speculatively associated with him), as well as individuals associated with Lee Harvey Oswald, and others. Among the records acquired and reviewed by the committee were those of:

  300. This list is only partial, and in many instances the records obtained included phone calls for only a portion of the 1963 period. In some instances, the committee's requests for telephone records could not be accommodated. The committee also had access to and used fragmented telephone numbers and numbers whose subscribers were unknown.


  301. With the aid of the Legislative and Committee Systems Division of the House Information Systems, the committee developed a computer project that facilitated the organization of the telephone records and contacts so as to allow detailed analysis and comparison. An Amdahl 470 V-5 computer, with backup provided by two IBM 370-158 central processing units operating under the OS/MVS system, were used. After an appropriate format was chosen for the output, various programs were run. The most important provided master alphabetical and master chronological listings of all calls in the data base. Extracts from these programs which focused on smaller groups of individuals were also requested and provided. Committee staff members then reviewed these outputs in an attempt to find patterns and frequencies of calls and matching telephone numbers.

  302. While investigative breakthroughs did not occur, certain telephone contacts caused the committee to conduct further field and file investigations. The major area of interest in the project was the 1963 telephone calls of Jack Ruby and his alleged contacts and associations with organized crime figures.

  303. A chronological consolidation of the telephone calls made by Ruby from the five separate business and home telephones he used uncovered a significant increase in the number of calls made in October and November 1963. The average number lept from around 25 to 35 in the months of May through September to approximately 75 in October and approximately 96 during the first 3 1/2 weeks of November. (825) In an effort to determine possible reasons for this significant increase in calls during the months immediately preceding the assassination, the committee closely evaluated Ruby's activities during that period. It looked at whom Ruby was calling and who was calling him, why he was in contact with those people, whether he had had previous contact with them, and what the significance of such contacts was.

    Nature of the calls

  304. The majority of Jack Ruby's 1963 calls can be categorized and described as follows:

  305. A large number were made to Ralph P.aul, Ruby's closest friend (826) and a part owner of Ruby's nightclub, the Carousel. (827) These were placed either to Paul's home or to his place of business, the Bull-Pen Restaurant in Fort Worth, Tex. Their frequency increased in the months and weeks preceding the assassination to the point where five or more calls between Ruby and Paul on a particular day were not unusual. The majority of the calls were of short duration. According to Paul:

    Well, every day he would find something else he would like to do--he would think of doing, or the union didn't do right by him, the AGVA, or the girls didn't do right--that's why he called me almost every day.(828)

    Social calls to other friends by Ruby appeared to be few.

  306. Calls were also made on a regular basis to members of Ruby's family. particularly Earl Ruby, a brother living in Detroit, and relatives living in Chicago: Hymen Rubinstein (brother), Mrs. Marion Carroll (sister), and Mrs. Eileen Kaminsky (sister).

  307. Numerous calls were made to inquire about and secure acts and performers for Ruby's nightclub. These were to theatrical agencies and other nightclubs and lounges around the country, as well as to specific individuals, including Harold Tannenbaum, a New Orleans club operator who negotiated with Ruby concerning the services of Janet Conforto, a stripper who used the stage name of Jade. Ruby called other strippers and performers directly, including Juanita Phillips (Candy Barr), Karen Bennett Carlin (Little Lynn), Nancy Powell, Gloria Merrifield (Smokey Turner),(829) Bill Demar, and Buddy Heard. The number of calls in this category increased as the year progressed, due in part to the end of Jada's engagement at the Carousel, which left a void and necessitated the hiring of new acts.

  308. An increasing number of calls were made in an attempt to resolve Ruby's dispute with the American Guild of Variety Artists (AGVA).(830) The monthly upsurge in these union-related calls corresponds to a significant degree with the upsurge in all of Ruby's 1963 calls. (831) Ruby's calls may be diagramed as follows:

    Jack Ruby - Toll Calls - 1963

    Summary of Telephone Calls

  309. Calls to Richard Walker concerning abortion information. (832)

  310. Several calls to Plastelite Engineering, in Fort Worth, to discuss Ruby's marketing scheme involving exercise twistboards, and to Mar-Din, a company based in Chicago. (833)

    Analysis of the calls

  311. It was not possible to explain adequately all of Ruby's telephone contacts. Although explanations have been given, questions and speculation about his associates and contacts remain. For example, there was a 3-minute call to Clarence Rector of Sulphur Springs, Tex., on April 10, 1963. Rector told the FBI he had known Ruby since 1950, and that in 1960 Ruby had mentioned that he had been to Cuba in an attempt to obtain some gambling concessions with some associates.(834) Rector had also made a visit to Cuba in late 1959.(835) The FBI did not question Rector about the April telephone call, and the committee was unable to locate him.

  312. Another unexplained call was to Elizabeth Anne Matthews of Shreveport, La., on October 3, 1963, at 11:03 p.m. It lasted 13 minutes. Matthews was the former wife of Russell D. Matthews, an acquaintance of Jack Ruby(836) and an individual known to be connected with gambling and other criminal enterprises in Dallas. (837) In his deposition to the committee, R.D. Matthews said he had no knowledge of this call (838) or of any connection between Ruby and Matthews' ex-wife. Elizabeth Anne Matthews was not located by the committee, but she had told the FBI on December 1, 1962, that she had no recollection of any calls from Dallas on or about October 3, 1965. (839)

  313. Other ostensibly explained but still suspicious calls included number of possibilities. A brief account of these calls and individuals, in chronological order, follows.

  314. LEWIS J. McWillie.--Between June and August 1963, Ruby placed seven long distance calls to McWillie, one of his closest friends. He spoke at length of this friendship during his Warren Commission testimony, stating at one point that he idolized McWillie.(840) In 1959, Ruby had visited him in Havana, Cuba,(841) where McWillie was working in a syndicate-controlled casino. FBI records established that McWillie at least knew Santos Trafficante, (842) the powerful Florida Mafia leader who played a role in the assassination conspiracies against Fidel Castro.(843) McWillie denied anything more than passing acquaintance with him. (844).

  315. Ruby's phone calls to McWillie occurred on June 27, September 2 (two calls), September 4, September 19, September 20, and September 22. The first two were placed to McWillie's home number, the remainder to McWillie's place of business, the Thunderbird Casino in Las Vegas. McWillie stated that the purpose of these calls was Ruby's desire for assistance in solving his labor dispute with AGVA. (845)

  316. Irwin S. Weiner.--On October 26, 1963, Jack Ruby place long distance call to Weiner in Chicago; he spoke with him for 12 minutes. Though the Warren Commission had been aware of this telephone call, it had never sought to have Weiner questioned, nor did it explore his background and associations.

  317. Weiner was a prominent underworld bondsman(846) who was closely associated with such men as James R. Hoffa, (847) Sam Giancana(848) and Paul and Allen Dorfman.(849) According to Federal and State law enforcement files, Weiner had served as a key functionary in the relationship between the Chicago Mafia and various corrupt union officials,(850) particularly while Hoffa was president of the Teamsters Union. As recently as April 1978, Weiner had been described in a Jack Anderson column as "the underworld's major financial figure in the Midwest."

  318. In the days following the assassination of President Kennedy, the FBI sought to question Weiner about the call he had received Ruby. A November 28, 1963, teletype states that Weiner refused to respond to questioning by FBI agents in Chicago and declined to assist the investigation in any way.(851)

  319. In executive session testimony before the committee, Weiner stated that. Ruby's call to him involved possible assistance in his labor dispute.(852) Weiner further testified that he had lied to a reporter when he stated in a taped interview earlier in 1978 that Ruby's call had had nothing to do with Ruby's labor problems. (853) Weiner also testified that he had refused to submit to FBI questioning about Ruby in the weeks following the assassination because he believed Bureau agents had harassed his daughter by implying that he might have had some connection with the assassination. (854)

  320. Nofio Pecora.--Telephone records indicated that at 9:13 p.m. on October 30, 1963, Jack Ruby placed all-minute call to the Tropical Court Tourist Park, a trailer park in New Orleans, La. The number called by Ruby, CH2-5431, was listed as the business office of the Tropical Court. In a partial compilation of various long distance telephone numbers called by Ruby which had been transmitted to the Warren Commission by the FBI in early 1964, a notation indicated that the Ruby call to the Tropical Court went to N.J. Pecora. (855) The Commission, however, did not interview or investigate Pecora and made no reference to him in its report.

  321. Nofio J. Pecora, alias Joseph O. Pecoraro, was the owner of the Tropical Court Tourist Park. He ran the business from a oneman office located on the premises. (856) It had been this office that Ruby called on October 30. Pecora, a former heroin smuggler,(857) was an associate of Carlos Marcello,(858) the New Orleans Mafia leader. The FBI, Justice Department, and Metropolitan Crime Commission of New Orleans identified Pecora as one of Carlos Marcello's associates,(859) with various members of the Pecora family being in contact with Marcello's family.(860) The committee's computer telephone project noted, for example, that Marcello placed a call to Nofio Pecora on June 24, 1963, at the same trailer office number that Ruby had called 4 months later.

  322. Earlier in 1978, when the committee investigators questioned Pecora about the October 30, 1963, telephone can, he declined to respond. In September 1978, however, he finally agreed to answer questions by the committee. He stated that he did not recall receiving any telephone call from Jack Ruby and did not in fact know Ruby or have any knowledge of him.(861) Pecora believed that he was probably the only person who had access to his Tropical Court telephone in 1963, but that he might well have taken a telephone message for someone else who lived at the trailer park.(862) He suggested his interview that Ruby might have called his office on October 30 in an attempt to locate some other party,(863) but stated he did not believe he ever took a message from Ruby.

  323. The evidence indicates that Ruby did in fact have an associate who lived at the Tropical Court Tourist Park at that time-Harold Tannenbaum, a New Orleans nightclub manager. He had run several Bourbon Street clubs affiliated with Marcclio interests. In his committee interview, Pecora admitted that he was acquainted with Tannenbaum and that they were neighbors in the trailer court. (864) He was not aware that Tannenbaum was a friend of Ruby.(865)

  324. Harold Tannenbaum had met Ruby in the summer of 1963 and had discussed going into business with him. The computer telephone project established that Ruby and Tannenbaum were in regular contact by telephone from June until October 1963. The committee also found that 1 hour after the l-minute call from Ruby's office to Pecora's office, Tannenbaum himself placed a call to Ruby. This sequence could thus be interpreted as consistent with what Pecora suggested that Ruby called his trailer court office simply to relay a message to another party. Nevertheless, Pecora did not recall relaying any long-distance telephone message from Ruby to Tannenbaum or anyone else in the trailer park. (866)

  325. Barney Baker.--On November 7, 1963, Jack Ruby received a collect call from Robert G. (Barney) Baker of Chicago which lasted 17 minutes. Baker was an associate of James R. Hoffa. (867) A former boxer and ex-convict, (868) he was one of Hoffa's best known assistants during the McClellan committee investigation in the late 1950's. (869) This investigation, coordinated by chief counsel Robert F. Kennedy, had detailed Baker's role as Hoffa's personal liaison to various Mafia figures, as well as to a number of well-known syndicate executioners.(870) In 1960, Robert Kennedy wrote that "sometimes the mere threat of his [Baker's] presence in a room was enough to silence the men who would otherwise have opposed Hoffa's reign."(871)

  326. Baker was questioned by the FBI in Chicago on January 3, 1964. He stated that Ruby was a complete stranger to him until the very day he spoke with him, November 7, 1963. (872) Ruy had called him earlier that day, and, in his absence, Baker's wife had taken a message instructing him to call Ruby's nightclub in Dallas. (873) This call did not appear in the telephone records gathered by the committee.) Baker told the FBI that Ruby had not used his real name, but had instead instructed him to call back and ask for "Lou," which he did.(874) This was the reason Baker gave for placing a collect call to Ruby''s number. Baker told the FBI that the purpose of Ruby's call was to seek assistance in the labor dispute Ruby was having with his nightclub competitors in Dallas. (875)

  327. Dusty Miller.--On November 8, 1963, the day after Ruby had received a call from Baker, he placed a call to Murray W. (Dusty) Miller at the Eden Roc Hotel in Miami, Fla., a call lasting 4 minutes. Dusty Miller was another assistant of Hoffa and head of the southern conference of the union. As such, he was regarded as a possible successor to Hoffa.(876) Miller was also said to be associated with numerous underworld figures. (877)

  328. In a 1978 interview with the committee, Miller stated that he had had no contact with Jack Ruby before the November 8, 1963, telephone call, during which Ruby had asked for assistance in his labor problems.(878) Ruby had stated something to the effect that "Barney Baker gave me your number and told me that maybe you could help me out." Miller, upon hearing the reference to Baker, quickly ended the conversation, as Miller viewed Barney Baker as a man with questionable associations, and he did not wish to be involved in any dealing that Baker himself might be involved in. (879)

  329. Miller told the committee that he had assumed from the substance of his conversation with Ruby that Ruby and Baker were friends.(880) He was surprised that Baker had given his telephone number to Ruby, though he never discussed the incident with Baker. (881) Miller stated that he had no further knowledge of Jack Ruby, nor had he ever been contacted again by Ruby. (882)

  330. Barney Baker.--Telephone records indicate that on November 8, 1963, at 5 :22 p.m., Jack Ruby placed another call to Barney Baker in Chicago. This occurred 31 minutes after the Ruby-Miller call and lasted for 14 minutes.

  331. Baker said that he terminated the November 7 call by "firmly declining to offer any assistance" in Ruby's labor difficulties.(883) In his 1964 FBI interview and 1978 committee deposition, Baker made no mention of the fact that Ruby had called him back on November 8 and indicated that he had had no further contact with Ruby. (884)

  332. Lenny Patrick.--In her Warren Commission testimony, Eva Grant, Jack Ruby's sister, stated that Ruby had called Lenny Patrick in Chicago sometime during the summer of 1963. (885) Grant said that Ruby had had some difficulty in locating Patrick's number, but, finally found it and called him. (886)

  333. The committee was not able to locate a call to Patrick in the telephone records that it possessed, although the possibility of Ruby's using a telephone not included in these records cannot be discounted. Furmet, Patrick stated during a 1978 deposition that he did not believe that Ruby had called him in 1963, although he did admit he was acquainted with Ruby when they were both much younger and living in Chicago (887) Lenny Patrick was one of the Chicago Maria's leading assassins and was responsible, according to Federal and State law enforcement files, for the murders of over a dozen victims of the mob. (888) In later years, Patrick was to become a lieutenant of Chicago leader Sam Giancana. (889)


  334. One manifestation of Jack Ruby's gregarious nature (890) was his affinity for making telephone calls, as can be seen from the longdistance toll records made available to the Warren Commission (891) and the committee. Several of the calls made by Ruby in the months preceding the assassination of President Kennedy have been singled out by assassination investigators(892) as being suspicious, since they were made to "known criminals."(893)

  335. An explanation frequently advanced for some of these calls concerns Ruby's dispute with the American Guild of Variety Artists (AGVA). The guild is a labor union for entertainers, although not exclusively.(894) One group of entertainers usually affiliated with AGVA has been exotic dancers and strippers. (895) These women constituted the bulk of Ruby's employees at his last nightclub, the Carousel.

  336. In order to employ strippers who belong to the union, Ruby had to sign the AGVA Minimum Basic Agreement,** (896) a document that outlines working conditions and other contractual arrangements for the performers. Further, a standardized AGVA contract was to be signed for each individual performer's engagement. (897)

  337. As in most businesses, a concern of management is to minimize costs. In the nightclub/burlesque business, one method is to use nonunion strippers and advertise them under the sobriquet of "amateur nights." In Dallas, the concept of amateur nights was allegedly begun by Barney Weinstein,(898) who ran the Theater Lounge. (899) Barney's brother, Abe, operated the Colony Lounge,(900) and the Weinsteins became, Jack Ruby's hated competitors. Theoretically, amateur nights would feature women who had no entertainment experience and had merely left the nightclub audience on a caprice or had signed up beforehand, offering to perform on a, one-time basis,(901) with the enticement of a small monetary reward and perhaps the opportunity to enter the entertainment field. (902) The allure of amateur nights could be partially attributed to the unprofessionalism of the women. (903) and the Weinsteins' use of "applause meters" as embellishment underscores this notion.(904)
    *Prepared by Howard Shapiro, research attorney, and Michael Ewing, staff researcher.
    ** See attachment 1, par. 864.

  338. In truth, amateur nights may have been used as a subterfuge to allow the club operators to lure nonunion performers at a much lower salary than union strippers. (905) Andrew Armstrong, Ruby's assistant at the Carousel, stated that the same group of women performed in the amateur night promotions, taking a turn at each club, and that most were not really "amateurs." (906) Abe Weinstein admitted that even union performers were used during amateur nights, (907) presumably at lower, nonunion salary scales.

  339. Amateur nights were profitable endeavors for the Weinsteins, and Jack Ruby naturally tried to duplicate their success. (908) Unfortunately, the Weinsteins' amateur nights were more popular than those at the Carousel,(909) since Ruby had less funds and therefore less women.(910) Accordingly, Ruby altered his competitive tactics and decided that all amateur nights should be prohibited.

  340. Ruby believed this dispute was within AGVA's jurisdiction and that amateur nights violated AGVA's constitution and rules,(911) which prohibited union entertainers such as emcees and musicians from working with amateurs. (912) As early as March 1961, he complained, and possibly threatened, Irving Mazzei, the western regional director for AGVA,(913) telling Mazzei that his competitors were holding their amateur nights on the same night of the week as he was and that Ruby wanted AGVA either to force his competitors to change. their nights or have amateur nights completely discontinued. Mazzei told Ruby he would look into the matter. (914)

  341. When Mazzei visited Dallas in October 1961, the same discussion occurred, and again in October 1962. (915)The dispute gained strength in 1963, particularly in the months preceding President Kennedy's assassination, and in an attempt to settle the problem Ruby solicited the possible aid of many of his acquaintances in Dallas;(916) he also contacted other individuals that he had not previously known.

  342. Most of these contacts were AGVA officials, including 'Thomas Palmer, the branch manager of AGVA's Dallas local in 1963,(917) a position he had assumed in 1962. Palmer said Ruby was continuously complaining about amateur night policies. (918)

  343. In October 1962, Palmer received a directive from AGVA's New York office that amateur nights should be halted. Later, a second order from Mazzei indicated that amateur nights were sanctioned on a conditional basis,(919) within a framework preventing AGVA strippers from being displaced and having competition.(920) It is unclear whether there was a further restriction on how many nights per week clubs could sponsor amateur nights.(921) Mazzei had a slightly different recollection that an AGVA order to stop amateur nights came out in February 1963. He believed Ruby callied him in an elated mood, being quite happy to comply. (922)

  344. Apparently there was confusion as to what position the union was taking. (923) Palmer was receiving orders and counterorders and was unable to present a fixed policy to Ruby and the Weinsteins. (924) Ruby seemed to interpret this ambiguity as discriminatory enforcement, whereby the Weinsteins were allowed to have amateur nights but Ruby was not. (925)

  345. Ruby felt compelled to contact higher officials within AGVA, and the result was numerous telephone calls during the summer of 1963 and a trip to New York in August. Several of the calls were to Joey Adams, the national president of AGVA, who stated that AGVA invest. igated Ruby's complaint and found the Weinsteins were paying the women in question. Therefore they were not amateurs. (926) Unfortunately, this rationalization relied on semantics and completely missed the point of Ruby's contentions.

  346. In New York, Ruby attempted to see Bobby Faye, AGVA's national administrative secretary, and ,Jackie Bright, another AGVA official, (927) but they refused to meet him, with Faye shunting him to his assistant, Delores Rosalet. (928) Adams and Faye, as well as other AGVA officials could not concern themselves with Ruby's problems because they were embroiled in an internal AGVA struggle which was also brewing in the months preceding the assassination (929) and coincidentally came to a head in the days before the tragedy.

  347. Ruby was becoming exasperated. AGVA could not, or would not help, and he was losing money and customers. (930) He eventually discontinued his own amateur nights and resorted to giving away, as an enticement to patrons, prizes such as dishes and audio equipment.(931) Ruby continued to try to have the Weinsteins' amateur nights stopped by contacting non-AGVA persons, but all attempts were fruitless. He called Lewis McWillie, a long-time friend working at a casino in Las Vegas, wanting to know if McWillie knew the president of the union. (932) McWillie did not, but he put Ruby in touch with William Miller, who supposedly knew the president, and Ruby and Miller had several telephone conversations. (933) While in New York, Ruby visited Joseph Glaser, the head of Associated Booking, a talent agency. (934) Glaser refused to do any favors for Ruby, including contacting AGVA on his behalf, and later described Ruby as a "mental case,"a "phony" and a "namedropper."(935)

  348. Ruby made a number of calls to Mike Shore, a friend of Earl Ruby,(936) his brother, and an individual involved in the entertainment business in Los Angeles. Ruby told Shore of his discriminatory enforcement problem and asked Shore to contact Mazzei or any other AGVA officials, even though Shore was not personally acquainted with any of them. Shore contacted Bobby Phillips, who worked in the Los Angeles office of Associatted Booking,(937) as well as an individual whose last name was Rio,(938) but these efforts were to no avail.

  349. On August 4, 1963, Ruby called Barney Ross in New York. (939) Ross, a boyhood friend of Ruby and a former professional boxer, was employed in the talent agency field, but he too was unable to help.(940)

  350. Throughout August, Ruby continued to call AGVA officials such as Mazzei and Adams: In September and October, he seemingly reduced his efforts, but at the end of October and during November there was a renewed flurry of telephone calls apparently relating to his labor problems.

  351. One call was to Irwin Weiner, a Chicago bail bondsman whose connections to organized crime and Teamsters officials are well-documented.(941) While Weiner had grown up in the same Chicago neighborhood as the Ruby family and went to school with Earl Ruby, contact with Jack Ruby had been almost nonexistent. The October 26 call was most surprising to him. Weiner's sworn explanation of their 12-minute conversation was:

    Jack Ruby called me. Evidently he had a night club in Dallas, Tex. He had a strip tease night, one night a week he had an amateur strip tease. Some union that was affiliated with entertainers had stopped him They asked him to stop because the amateur entertainers were not members of the union.

    He stopped me and another competitor of his opened up. He called me and wanted to know if I could write a bond. He was looking to get an injunction. The lawyer told him if he got an injunction he would have to put up a bond. He asked me if I would do that and I told him no. Then he told me he was going to file a lawsuit. (942)

  352. The injunction apparently. would have prevented the Weinsteins from holding amateur nights. The committee was unable to find any other indications that Ruby was planning or had begun to implement any sort of legal action against the Weinsteins.(943) Accordingly, his request to Weiner seemed odd, due to their limited relationship, Weiner's residence in Chicago, and Ruby's acquaintances with other bondsmen in Dallas and California. (944)

  353. Early in November, Ruby had at least one, and. probably two, conversations with Robert (Barney) Baker, an associate of Jimmy Hoffa and another individual with numerous links to criminal figures. (945) The number and sequence of calls between Ruby and Baker is in question. Ruby told Baker that an unidentified mutual friend suggested the contact, and again explained that his competitors were "attempting to knock him out" and that AGVA was "giving him a headache." (946) He wanted Baker to intervene in his union negotiations. Baker replied that he could not do so because that would be a violation of his parole conditions. Further, Baker did not know anybody with AGVA. (947)

  354. On the same day that Ruby had a 14-minute conversation with Baker, he also called Teamsters official Murray (Dusty) Miller in Miami.(948) Miller told the FBI only that the call involved Ruby's dispute with AGVA. (949) He told the committee that Ruby stated that a mutual friend suggested the contact, that he had heard that Miller was friendly with the president of AGVA, and that he needed some assistance from its national office. Miller did not know the AGVA president, and he discontinued the conversation when Ruby identified their mutual friend as Barney Baker. (950)

  355. Several days later, Ruby called Frank Goldstein, a resident San Francisco who was involved in gambling activities.(951) Goldstein had known Ruby in Chicago, and Eva Grant may have known and worked with Goldstein in San Francisco(952). but he was surprised to hear from "Sparky," as this was only the first or second time Ruby had ever called him. (953) Ruby wanted somebody who had an "in" with the union. Goldstein told him that his union associations were in the news media field and not the entertainment business.(954)

  356. The calls to Weiner Baker, Miller and Goldstein constitute the "suspicious" AGVA-related calls that are known to have been made by Ruby in the months preceding the assassination. They have been used as a basis for speculation that Ruby had links with organized crime, Jimmy Hoffa and the Teamsters, and other criminal enterprises. Ruby himself told the Warren Commission that they were "not related to the underworld." (955)

  357. Following the call to Goldstein, Ruby went back to the AGVA officials, calling Bobby Faye approximately six times (956), including four calls on November 13, 1963. He also called Mazzei at Mazzei's unlisted home number in California, (957) and Alton Sharpe, Palmer's predecessor as Dallas branch manager, in Chicago, where Sharpe was serving as that local's branch manager. (958)

  358. Faye, as the national administrative secretary, was the true head of AGVA in 1963, with the presidency of the union being a largely titular position.(959) Earlier in 1963, Faye had contacted Mazzei, telling him that amateur nights must stop, not just in Dallas but around the country. (960) Mazzei passed the word to Palmer and the Dallas nightclub owners (this may have been Mazzei's February 1963 order). Since the Weinsteins would not stop, deciding to continue amateur nights even though they would have to pay all performers involved, (961) Ruby had to contact Faye in November. This time Faye apparently bypassed Mazzei and directly informed Palmer that amateur nights in the nature of an audience participation contest were taboo. (962) Palmer sent out a letter to the owners on November 13, 1963. (963) Faye also sent a personal letter to Ruby. (964)

  359. On November 20, Ruby made at least two calls to Sharpe, stating that he had received the November 13 letter but that Palmer was not acting in a reasonable manner, and asking if Sharpe could help him out. (965) He could not.

  360. The next day, November 21, 1963, the storm brewing within AGVA broke, leaving Faye,(966) Mazzei(967) and Sharpe(968) without jobs, a fate which also befell Palmer shortly thereafter.

  361. Opinions are mixed as to whether Ruby had a legitimate argument and was actually a victim of discriminatory enforcement by AGVA. It has been suggested that the various Dallas branch managers may have intentionally favored the Weinsteins because of Ruby's pestering,(969) chronic complaining(970) and sometimes abrasive personality,(971) or perhaps because of surreptitious payoffs. Tony Zoppi, a Dallas newspaper columnist, told the committee that in his opinion one of the Weinsteins was paying off the union. (972) Palmer believed that he was one of the few AGVA officials who would not accept bribes in the course of their duties,(973) and Bobby Faye stated that Ruby's competitors may have had a "special relationship" with the branch manager(s).(974) An FBI source said that he "did not doubt Dolan [James Henry Dolan, branch manager in Dallas from 1957-60] may have used his position for extra income by requiring pay-offs from band leaders and persons seeking entertainers? (975)

  362. It is also possible that Ruby was dealing with an organization fraught with incompetence and corruption. Certainly AGVA's internal problems in 1963 did not improve Ruby's plight. Neither did the possible corruption within AGVA. Palmer stated that dishonesty pervaded the upper echelon of the union,(976) and others have described AGVA as having "racketeer" ]inks(977) and being associated with "smalltime hoodlumism."(978) Penny Singleton, the current president of AGVA and an individual involved in the 1963 power struggle, described the situation then as "abominable" and stated that the union was completely corrupt. (979)

  363. Both Ruby and the Weinsteins could have been blowing a trifling matter out of proportion. Palmer thought that after a while, the amateur nights were no longer profitable for the Weinsteins, but they continued them merely to frustrate and anger Ruby. (980)

  364. Conversely, Palmer thought that Ruby may have pursued the amateur night issue not because of a true belief in its validity, but because he hated the Weinsteins,(981) as well as to divert attention from his other difficulties with AGVA. (982) Ruby had difficulty adhering to the AGVA minimum basic agreement since it restricted the hours which a performer had to work and Ruby had a continuous show policy at the Carousel. (983) Further, he was often delinquent in the payments he had contracted to make to the AGVA welfare fund, even though these payments were not large. (984) He was delinquent during Palmer's tenure as Dallas branch manager,(985) but did become current, (986) perhaps due in part to Palmer's threat that Ruby would lose his AGVA license.(987) Ruby also encouraged his strippers to drink champagne with the customers, or at least to persuade the customers to purchase it themselves. (988) This practice is known colloquially as "B-girls," and AGVA members were not supposed to engage in it, although enforcement was difficult and rare. Although Andrew Armstrong stated that Jack Ruby did not allow solicitation of customers by his employees,(989) Heidi Lee Ballowe, a Ruby employee in 1961 and a member of AGVA's board in Dallas in 1963, stated the board had received two complaints that Ruby expected his dancers to associate with customers, (990) a practice obviously not sanctioned by AGVA.

  365. Complaints to AGVA. by strippers also involved alleged physical abuse by Ruby,(991) nonpayment of wages, and other contractual violations. One example was the contractual difficulties Ruby had with Janet Conforto ("Jada"), the stripper Ruby recruited in New Orleans. He found that her act tended to overstep the bounds of decency prescribed for the Carousel end accordingly Ruby attempted to remove her act from the Carousel roster before her contract had run out. Palmer was forced to intercede to resolve the problem. (992) A second example involved a dancer who used the stage name of Najada. She complained to AGVA in 1961 after Ruby slapped her, but Dolan told her to forget the incident. (993)

  366. It appears that Ruby's problems with AGVA were constant, often open-ended and unresolved, with few victories for Ruby. Most importantly, his labor problems with AGVA were real and even provided a plausible explanation for at least most of his actions, movements, and telephone calls in 1963. Indeed, testimony given to the committee supported the conclusion that most of Ruby's phone calls during late 1963 were related to his labor troubles. In light of the identity of some of the individuals with whom Ruby spoke, however, the possibility of other matters being discussed could not be dismissed. The explanations provided by several of the organized crime-con. nected figures Ruby was in touch with have not been corroborated and seem to have lacked credibility. While there can be no doubt that Ruby.'s difficulties with AGVA played an important part in his actions m 1963, his labor problems do not necessarily explain all significant aspects of his actions and associations during that period.

  367. American Guild of Variety Artist
    Minimum Basic Agreement
    Minimum Basic Agreement page 2
    AGVA Standard Form of Artist Engagement Contract



  368. The committee undertook an extensive review of Jack Ruby's friends, associates, and contacts in an effort to develop. information relating to his background, activities, and possible criminal associations. The committee made an effort to examine more closely the full dimensions of Ruby's life, focusing in greater detail on his associations than was attempted by the Warren Commission or the FBI. In this connection, staff papers were prepared containing investigative profiles of a number of his associates and contacts, some of whom had organized crime connections.

  369. The following biographical summaries of these individuals are intended to provide a more complete picture of the range of Ruby's associations and activities, with emphasis on various criminal associates.** These start papers were prepared at various times over the life of the committee. The information in them was taken from law enforcement and other files.

  370. It was not in all cases independently verified and should not necessarily be taken as the truth. Further, not all of the staff papers were updated as new material was developed or depositions of the subjects were taken. Consequently, they should be read as what they are: working documents summarizing relevant and irrelevant information, not all of which could be or was verified.

    i. Andrew Armstrong, Jr.

    Biographical Summary

  371. Andrew Armstrong, Jr., was born on March 20, 1937, in Pittsburg, Tex. He left school after completing 11th grade and moved to Dallas.(994) He was then 16 years old and has resided in Dallas ever since. (995) He has had a variety of occupations since leaving school. His first job was as a caddymaster at River Hills Golf Course (996) When Armstrong left there he went to work at Wilson's Cafeteria in the Republic Bank Building. (997) He then worked at Vick's Restaurant.(998) From there he went to Vinson Steel Corp. where he filled orders for cut stainless steel and magnesium.(999) From 1958 to March 18, 1961, Armstrong was in prison on a narcotics charge. After his release, he began working at the El Rancho Hotel as a night clerk.(1000) Following this he worked as a maintenance man at the Holiday Hills Apartments, which belonged to the Hunt. Oil Co.(1001) Armstrong said he never met H.L. or Lamar Hunt. (1002) He worked at the apartments until Christmas 1961. (1003) In January 1962, he got a job at the Marilyn Belt Factory. (1004) While working there, he also took a part-time job at the Carousel Club for Jack Ruby.(1005) During June 1962, Armstrong began working full time for Ruby(1006) who employed him as a bartender and general maintenance man for a salary of approximately per week plus tips. (1007) Armstrong worked at the Carrousel until February 1964. (1008)
    *Prepared by T. Mark Flanagan, Jr., Leslie II. Wizelman, Ann F. Taylor, staff researchers, Howard Shapiro, research attorney, and Donald A. Purdy, Jr., senior staff counsel.
    **A number of profiles are followed by the depositions of the individuals taken by the committee. In one case, a copy of the staff summary of the interview with the individual has been included.

  372. Armstrong had an arrest record, although it was not extensive.(1009) During the 1950's, he was arrested for burglary and received 2-years probation. (1010) He also had one narcotics arrest, for which he received a 5-year sentence. (1011) On March 18, 1961, he was released from the State penitentiary after 3 years.(1012) There was no indication of any association or connection with organized crime figures or involvement in organized illegal activities.

    Statements by Armstrong

  373. The Warren Commission's examination of Armstrong was extremely comprehensive. He was interviewed by the FBI on several occasions and also testified before the Commission. (1013)

  374. As stated earlier, Armstrong was employed by Ruby from 1962 to February 1964. Armstrong testified before the Warren Commission that he first met Ruby in May 1962 when he asked him for a job.(1014) During an interview with the committee, however, Armstrong indicated that his first contact with Ruby had actually occurred during the 1950's while he was part of a song-and-dance group that performed in the vicinity of the Vegas Club.(1015) Nevertheless, he said that the first formal meeting occurred during mid-1962.(1016) In his deposition before the committee, Armstrong further explained that he had sung with a group called the Vinos who had appeared at the Vegas Club. (1017) At that time, be did not know Ruby well, and when he subsequently asked Ruby for a job, Ruby did not remember him. (1018)

  375. Armstrong's relationship with Ruby was that of employee to employer. When Armstrong first went to work for Ruby, he worked as a bartender and general maintenance man.(1019) Gradually, according to Armstrong, his duties and responsibilities increased. (1020)

    * * * my responsibilities grew in putting down the receipts in the books, going to the bank, things like that, and making sure that there was enough girls, there are enough waitresses, going and putting ads in the paper. They just grew. (1021)

  376. Armstrong told both the Warren Commission and the committee that Ruby operated the club on a cash basis. (1022) Ruby would go to the bank "once or twice a week,"(1023) but Armstrong believed Ruby kept most of his money "in his purse on his person."(1024) Employees and purchases for the club were paid in cash.(1025) The rent was paid with a cashier's check. (1026)

  377. In Armstrong's opinion, the financial condition of the Carousel was "not good."(1027) He stated that the average receipts were $900 to $1,000 per week. (1028) In his deposition, Armstrong said that in the fall of 1963 the club was "doing a little better than we had been in the past year."(1030) Armstrong stated that Ralph Paul had a financial interest in the club, but that Ruby did not. (1029) Regarding Paul, Armstrong stated that

    * * * if anybody gave him [Ruby] money, he probably would have got it from Ralph. That's the only place I know of him ever getting money. (1031)

  378. In another interview with the committee, Armstrong stated that during the weeks immediately prior to the assassination, Ruby had accumulated $6,000, $3,000 of which he had planned to give Paul. (1032) When Ruby was arrested, the $3,000 was confiscated, and Armstrong gave the remaining $3,000, which was in his possession, to Paul. (1033)

  379. Armstrong indicated that Ruby kept a pistol in a Merchants State Bank money bag.(1034) He did not recall ever seeing Ruby with the pistol in his pocket or stuck in his waist belt.(1035) After the club closed in the evenings, the receipts were turned over to Ruby, (1036) who would put the money in the money bag along with the pistol and take it with him. (1037)

  380. Armstrong stated that the Carousel Club was in good standing with the Dallas police, but there were no specific policemen who visited the club. (1038) Patrolmen would stop in to check on the club and have a cup of coffee. (1039) Armstrong told the Warren Commission that the policemen were given a discount on beer, the same price charged to newsmen, bellboys, and hotel clerks--40 cents. (1040) Armstrong stated that he had never seen members of the vice squad take anything to drink when they came to the club. (1041) When asked in his deposition if Ruby ever gave discount rates for beer Armstrong stated:

    If he did, it wasn't that often; we could have had 40 cents. You know, I could have charged .somebody less than I did the regular customers, like they would come and sit at the bar or something, if Jack OK'd it. I can't remember who all got the rates. It's been too long. (1042)

  381. When Armstrong was asked if the strippers employed in Ruby's club engaged in prostitution, he stated that there were a few who did, but they acted without Ruby's knowledge or consent. (1043) Ruby did not gamble, as far as Armstrong knew, although he did participate in a few poker games. (1044) He did not know of any other participants in these games, except for Ruby's roommate.(1045)

  382. Ruby was described by Armstrong as always on the make." (1046) Ruby dated often, although Armstrong knew of no specific details. (1047) Armstrong denied that Ruby was a homosexual or that he had any sexual perversions. (1048)

  383. Armstrong also described Ruby as "worried and disturbed always." (1049) He stated that Ruby was often angry and threatened to fire him on several occasions.(1050) He had told the Warren Commission that Ruby never hit anyone but always gave the impression that he might do so at any time. (1051) Armstrong never knew Ruby to use any physical violence except to throw people out of the club.(1052)

  384. The only trips Armstrong could recall Ruby taking were to New York and New Orleans.(1053) He stated that the New York trip was to secure the services of a dancer named Jada. (1054) Armstrong stated in his interview, however, that Ruby told him this trip was to sell it gun for a friend of his in Cuba. (1055) Armstrong indicated his deposition that Ruby went to New York to visit a friend. (1056) Armstrong added that "it might have been the time when he [Ruby] bought those guns."(1057) When Armstrong was questioned further about the guns he stated that Ruby bought three guns, but he did not know what kind. (1058) He bought one for Eva Grant, his sister, and one for "his friend" who was in Cuba.(1059) Armstrong added, "I don't know how he got it over."(1060) Armstrong had no knowledge of any trips to Cuba. (1061)

  385. In an FBI interview, Armstrong described his activities on November 22, 1963. (1062) He took a bus from his home. and arrived in downtown Dallas at approximately 12:25 p.m. (1063) He walked to the Carousel, arriving there at approximately 12:30 p.m. (1064) While in the men's room, he heard sirens. (1065) Becoming curious, he turned on the radio and heard the announcement that the Presidential motorcade had been fired upon.(1066) He then attempted to awaken Curtis "Larry" Laverna Crafard, who was sleeping in a room at the club. (1067) Unable to do so, he listened to the radio for a few more minutes.(1068) He then returned to Crafard's room and this time woke him up.(1069) According to Armstrong, Ruby telephoned at proximateIy 5 or 10 minutes later.(1070) He believed Ruby was calling from the Dallas Morning News because he could hear typewriters in the background, and it was Ruby's habit on Friday mornings to go to the newspaper offices to place his weekend advertisements for the club. (1071) Ruby talked to Armstrong for 3 or 4 minutes and informed him that: "If anything happens, we are going to close the club." Armstrong heard the official announcement of the President's death at approximately 1:30 p.m. (1073) About 15 or 20 minutes later, Ruby arrived at the club.(1074) Armstrong believes this was at approximately 1:45 or 1:50 p.m. (1075) Ruby informed him that the club would be closed for the next 3 days(1076) and then made several phone calls. (1077) Both heard over the radio that an Officer Tippit had been killed, and Ruby mentioned that he knew him.(1078) Armstrong told the FBI that Ruby remained at the club until approximately 4 p.m. (1079) In his Warren Commission testimony, however, Armstrong stated that Ruby left at approximately 2:35 p.m., returning at approximately 4 p.m.(1080) Armstrong indicated that Ruby was an the phone almost the entire time he was in the club. (1081) He claimed he heard Ruby make phone calls to Ralph Paul and to people in Detroit, Chicago, and Los Angeles. (1082) He also remembers that Ruby called Eva Grant and Dr. Coleman Jacobson. (1083) He stated that some time between 2 and 3 p.m., a woman called asking for Ruby and gave the name of Alace. (1084) Ruby was on another phone at the time of this call. (1085) Armstrong stirred that when Ruby left the club, he took the money bag with the gun in it.(1086) Armstrong left the clubs at approximately 4:30 p.m. (1087).

  386. In his Warren Commission testimony, Armstrong stated that on Saturday, November 23, 1963, he spoke to Ruby at approximately 1 p.m. regarding Larry Crafrad's leaving the club.(1088) Ruby arrived at the club at about 6 or 7 that evening.(1089) He stayed for a short time, leaving between 7 and 7:30.(1090) Armstrong closed the club and left at approximately 8 p.m.(1091) In an FBI interview, however, Armstrong had stated that his last contact with Ruby before the Oswald shooting was about 9 p.m. on Saturday evening.(1092)

  387. Subsequent to Ruby's arrest, Armstrong talked to Melvin Belli, but did not testify at the trial. (1093) Belli did not use Armstrong because of his previous criminal record. (1094)

  388. Armstrong did visit Ruby in jail, but he stated they never discussed the killing of Lee Harvey Oswald. (1095) Rather, they discussed the business at the club, as Armstrong continued operating it after Ruby's arrest. Armstrong also delivered Ruby's mail and relayed any messages from Ruby's employees. (1096)

  389. Deposition before the House Select Committee on Assassinations.


    ii. Robert Bernard Baker

    Biographical Summary

  390. Robert Bernard Baker was born on August 16, 1911, in New York City, the son of Sarah Baker, 1947 Ocean Avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y. Baker had one brother, Herman, who resided in New York City, and a sister, Rose, who lived with their mother in Brooklyn. Baker had been married three times. His first wife was Ann Baker; her address in 1978 was unknown. Mollie Baker was his second wife. They had a daughter Barbara, living with her mother in Los Angeles, Calif. Baker was then married to Caroline Baker.(1097)

  391. Baker was 6 feet, obese at 320 pounds, with black hair, brown eyes, and large, rectangular protruding ears.(1098) During World War II, he had attempted to enlist in the U.S. Army, but was rejected due to obesity.

  392. Baker had the following identification numbers: FBI number--910142; Social Security--115-03-7850; Federal Correctional Institution-A462SS. (1099)

    Treatment by the Warren Commission

  393. Baker had been under prior investigation by the FBI and was considered a hoodlum with organized crime and Teamsters connections. The FBI and the Warren Commission failed to investigate any possible connection between Baker's associates and associates of Ruby. The only mention of Baker by the Warren Commission was in reference to it Ruby call to Baker on November 11, 1963. When the FBI interviewed Baker, they were aware of the phone calls Ruby had made to Mike Shore and Irwin Weiner, but they failed to question Baker regarding these individuals.

    The Committee's Investigation

  394. Legal Activities.--Baker's ostensible vocation and apparent, principal source of legitimate income since 1950 had been derived from the International Brotherhood of Teamsters Union. In 1950, Baker had been elected president of Local 730 in Washington, D.C.(1100) He resigned from Local 730 in 1952 and became the organizer for the Central Conference of Teamsters out of St. Louis. In addition, he had organized Teamsters locals in Chicago, Ill, Detroit, Mich., and Omaha, Nebr. (1101)

  395. Prior to his employment with the Teamsters, Baker worked in New York City, Hollywood, Fla., and Washington, D.C. Until 1946, he had worked in New York City on the waterfront. (1102) In 1946, he had moved to Hollywood. Fla.. and worked as a doorman and bouncer for the Colonial Inn. (The Colonial Inn was owned and operated by Mert Wortheimer and Jake Lansky. Jake Lansky is the brother of Meyer Lansky. a reputed syndicate figure in Miami. (1103)

  396. Baker moved to Washington in 1946, where he drove a truck for S.A. Frese Co. and worked in the warehouse for the District Grocery Store. (1104)

  397. Harold Gibbons, Teamsters official in St. Louis and later James R. Hoffa's No. 2 man, persuaded Baker to move. to St.,Louis, a move he made on November 6, 1952. (1105) He was Gibbons bodyguard and was involved with the cab strike. (1106) From St. Louis, Baker went to Detroit in October 1953 to work for Hoffa. (1107) Baker "took care of a shyster lawyer" for Hoffa. (1108)

  398. Illegal Activities and Association With, Organized Crime. During his testimony before the Senate Select Committee on Improper Activities in the Labor or Management Fields, Baker admitted knowing Johnny "Cockeyed" Dunne, who, during the 1940's, was the vice president and business manager of Local 31510, Terminal Checkers and Platform Men, with a national charter from the American Federation of Labor. It occupied offices in the same building as International Longshoremen's Association. Another associate of Baker's was Andrew "Squint" Sheridan, who was an associate of Dunne's and organizer of a brother local of the union on the Hoboken waterfront. Duane had been a strong-arm man for Dutch Schultz during Prohibition days. Baker was also associated with Danny Gentile, known as Danny Brooks, a former prizefighter who, during the 1940's, was a policy collector for policy shops on the waterfront docks under the control of Dunne and his gang.(1109)

  399. During 1947, Dunne and Sheridan were arrested for the murder of Anthony Hintz, hiring boss on one of the West Side piers in Manhattan. (1110) Hintz had refused to knuckle under to the desires of Dunne to get control of Hintz' Pier 51. It was the only pier that the Dunne-McGrath mob did not control in the entire Greenwich Village section of the West Side, and at that time the piers had just opened up After being under the control of the Navy Department during the war. (1111 )

  400. Shortly after Hintz' murder, Dunne was picked up in his union rooms and charged with the shooting; Sheridan had disappeared. He was found a week later in Hollywood, Fla. (1112) While Sheridan was being held in the Federal detention penitentiary, he was visited by Barney Baker. (1113) After visiting Sheridan, Baker went to Joe Adonis to get help for Sheridan in fighting extradition.(1114)

  401. When Baker went to see Sheridan he told the guard that Danny Gentile, who was missing, was at Pompano Lakes. After his visit, Baker fled to Los Vegas to hide out until he was able to get back to Florida. (1115) He stayed at the Flamingo Hotel, which was controlled by Bugsy Siegal, a west coast hoodlum. (1116)

  402. In 1934, Baker was convicted and sentenced to an indefinite term in the City Penitentiary in New York for setting off stench bombs in movie theaters. He served 1 year and was paroled but was sent back for setting off another stench bomb. He was paroled 1935. On March 15, 1936, while on parole, he was shot and wounded while getting into an automobile on 34th Street in Manhattan. Baker was with Johnny O'Rourke, the president of Local of the Teamster, Farmer Sullivan, a waterfront mobster, and Joe Butler, another waterfront mobster. (1117) O'Rourke was also wounded, Butler killed. Sullivan was unhurt, but his body was discovered a year or so later out in the Flats in New Jersey.(1118) It was never established who opened fire on these men, but 2 days later police raided a house of prostitution on West ,90th Street, New York City. The raid was initiated by a tip believed to have come from the Dunne mob, of which Baker was a member. (1119)

  403. Baker was a collector and strong-ann man for an organization that Dunne and the union had set up called Varick Enterprises.(1120) Varick Enterprises was a strong-arm collection agency for the so-called public loading racket on the piers and at truck terminals. They would discount the loading collections that were made by the public loaders on the piers and collect the amounts due. (1121) Through Varick Enterprises, Baker was also associated with Eddie McGruth and Connie Noonan.

  404. When Baker moved to St. Louis in November 1952, he became associated with Joe Costello, operator of the Ace Cab Company and known hoodlum.(1123) Baker also became associated with John Vitale, identified before the Senate Select Committee as one of the three or four heads of the syndicate in St. Louis. (1124)

  405. In April 1953. Baker was arrested in St. Louis with a gun in his possession. He testified in 1958 that he had bought the gun from cab driver. (1125) The arrest record notes:

    When questioned at this office, Baker stated that a few weeks ago while en route to the city from Washington, he purchased the aforementioned revolver from a swap shop located on the outskirts of Indianapolis, Indiana. (1126)

    The arrest record further says:

    When asked as to why he was carrying a gun, Baker stated that he was told by his bosses, Flynn and Gibbons, that the circuit attorney, Edward Doud, had given his approval for the carrying of the gun by him and other business agents of the Teamsters' Union. (1127)

  406. As a result of testimony given before the Senate Select Committee, Baker was tried and convicted for violations of section 186, title 129, United States Code (Labor-Management Relations Act of 1947).(1128) Baker had been paid substantial sums of money for his assistance in settling certain labor difficulties encountered by Ex* hibitors Service Co., Inc., and Esco Motor Co., McKees Rocks, Pa. (1129) George F. Callaban, president of the two companies, testified that when his companies were experiencing labor difficulties with Teamsters Locals 57 and 58, Edward Weinheimer, an employee, contacted "Barney" Baker to obtain his assistance in settling the dispute. (1130) Callaban sent money to Weinheimer, who allegedly paid Baker. Callahan discussed the matter with Hoffa at Detroit and Washington, D.C. Callahan paid Baker directly, and ultimately Callahan reached an agreement in the union difficulty.(1131)

  407. Baker was paroled from Sandstone Penitentiary on June 7, 1963. He moved to Chicago and became employed as field representative for the Chicago Loop Auto Refinishing Co. at 3 South Shields, Chicago. The company was owned by Earl Scheib.

  408. Relationship with Ruby.--During an FBI interview on January 6, 1964, Baker stated that his only contact with Jack Ruby was telephone call he received from him on November 11, 1963. Baker told FBI agents John R. Basserr and William F. Hood that on November 11, 1963, his wife called him at his office and told him that he had just received a long-distance telephone call from Dallas, Tex. It was requested that he return the call and ask for "Lou." Baker did so the same day from his office telephone. He said that when he got through to the Dallas number, he told the person who answered that he was Barney Baker and was returning a call to someone at that number. Baker stated that the person on the other end of the line said "That's me. My name is [Baker could not recall the first name] Ruby." This person then told Baker, "You don't know me but we have mutual friends." Baker said he asked who the mutual friends were, but Ruby simply said, "We got friends but I don't want to tell over the phone." According to Baker, Ruby then related that he was in the burlesque and strip show business in Dallas and that competitors were "attempting to knock me out" and was contacting Baker in an attempt to obtain assistance in resolving the problem he was having with the American Guild of Variety Artists. Ruby suggested that "mutual friends" had advised him that Baker was familiar with unions and handling matters such as this and requested that Baker contact the AGVA people and "straighten them out." (1132)

  409. Baker told Ruby that part of the provisions of his 5-year probation was that he could not engage in any labor-management relations activities during the probation period. He declined Ruby's request. (1133)

  410. Deposition taken by the House Select Committee on Assassinations.

    Deposition of Robert Bernard Baker

    iii. Joseph Campisi

    Biographical Summary

  411. Joseph Campisi was born October 11, 1918, in Dallas, Tex. (1134) He was described as 5'5", 190 pounds, with brown eyes and black hair. He had no military record or FBI number. (1135) He was married to Edith Marie Campisi; they had four children. (1136) Campisi had been residing at 4445 Ashford, Dallas, for many years. (1137)

  412. Campisi's major source of income was the Egyptian Lounge, restaurant and bar located at 5610 East Mockingbird Lane, Dallas, which he had owned and operated with his brother, Sam, for a number of years. Following Sam's death in late 1970, he continued to run the Egyptian while negotiating its sale with Sam Campisi's widow. The FBI received information that in late 1973 Campisi offered to sell his share of the Egyptian, with the intention of building a new restaurant at another location in Dallas. (1138) Apparently this idea did not develop fully, as the committee was told in 1978 that Sam Campisi's widow eventually began litigation to protect her interests, and the matter was settled out of court in 1978, with Campisi making it payment of $200,000. (1139)

  413. Joe and Sam Campisi had been business partners for many years. In 1946 or 1947, they bought the Idle Hour Bar in Dallas, which they sold in 1957 or 1958 when they bought the Egyptian. (1140) They also operated the Par-5 Club, a private club adjoining the Egyptian.(114l)

  414. The Egyptian appeared to have been a consistent and appreciable source of income. This was indicated not only by the amount paid to Sam Campisi's widow, but by Joe Campisi's statement to the FBI that he and his brother each netted $42,000 from the restaurant in 1960,(1142) and by the information received from a Campisi friend (Tony Todora) in 1967 estimating that each brother netted $100,000 per year from their restaurant business. (1143)

  415. Campisi had been involved in several other business ventures. For a number of years, he aided the promotion in Dallas of gambling junkets sponsored by the Flamingo Hotel in Las Vegas (which ended in 1967 when the hotel changed ownership).(1144) He had also been involved in an insurance enterprise, Joe Campisi and Associates, in the 1970's, having filed for a license as a casualty insurance agent. (1145) There was no indication of the success of this operation in the materials reviewed by the committee.

  416. Campisi may have been aided in these businesses by his contacts with political and law enforcement persons. A 1970 FBI report related an informant's assertion that Campisi was close with both State judges and members of the Dallas County District's Attorney's office.(1146) He allegedly. had contacts within the Dallas Police Department. When Campisi learned that William Decker would be replaced as Dallas' Sheriff, he reportedly hoped that Clarence Jones would be his replacement, as the Dallas bookmakers would then be able to operate without any problems. (1147)

  417. Campisi had been linked with both gambling and bookmaking activities in the Dallas area, (1148) but had never been arrested for any gambling activities. In interviews, he played down such activities. lie apparently feared that his gambling could jeopardize the success of the Egyptian Lounge, (1149) and the FBI files indicated fluctuations in Campisi's gambling activities over the years, which might have corresponded to these fears and similar ones which his brother had.(1150)

  418. Campisi was arrested once, on July 29, 1944, for murder. This incident involved the shooting of an employee of Campisi's who allegedly drew a knife on him. A Dallas County grand jury believed Campisi's claim of self-defense, as they refused to indict. (1151)

  419. While Campisi's technical characterization in Federal law enforcement records as an organized crime member has ranged from definite to suspected to negative,(1152) it is clear that he was an associate or friend of many Dallas-based organized crime members, particularly Joseph Civello during the time he was the head of the Dallas organization. (1153) There was no indication that Campisi had engaged in any specific organized crime-related activities.

    Association with Ruby

  420. Campisi stated that he had known Jack Ruby since 1947 (1154) or 1949,(1155) but that the extent of their relationship was contacts at the Egyptian, where Ruby stopped for a steak November 21, 1963, (1156) at the Carousel or Vegas clubs which Ruby operated,(1157) or at various athletic events in the Dallas area.(1158) Campisi told the committee that Ruby came to his home once but did not stay very long. (1159) Yet, later in his FBI interview in 1963, Campisi stated in an apparent contradiction, that he never socialized with Ruby. (1160)

  421. Campisi also contradicted himself in another context. On November 25, 1963, he told the FBI that Ruby operated his business on a cash basis and carried money from the club in his pocket. (1161) In 1978, he could not recall making, such a statement and said that he did not know too much about Ruby s business. (1162) On December 7, 1963, Campisi stated that he never knew Ruby to carry large sums of money and was surprised that Ruby had so much cash on him when arrested following the Oswald shooting. (1163)

  422. Campisi told the FBI that he had no knowledge of Ruby's background or associates.(1164) Nevertheless, Ruby thought enough of Campisi to want to see him in jail following the shooting. On November 29, 1963, Campisi received a call from Decker of the Sheriff's office informing him of this request; on November 30, 1963, Campisi and his wife visited Ruby, speaking to him for approximately 10 minutes. ( 1165 )

  423. Ruby did not tell Campisi why he had killed Oswald,(1166) and Campisi said he did not ask. (1167) Ruby did not give any indication that he had known Oswald previously, (1168) but he did mention his extreme sympathy for Mrs. Kennedy and broke down while doing so. (1169) Campisi said that Ruby wanted to know the reaction of his friends and public in general to his act. (1170)

  424. Documented associates that Ruby and Campisi had in common included Russell D. Matthews, Benjamin Binion, James R. Todd, John Grizzaffi, Ralph Paul and Tony Zoppi. (1171) Campisi attended school with Matthews (1172) and Campisi stated that he was a friend of Binion's(1173) and Todd's.(1174) Campisi bought the Egyptian from Grizzaffi, (1175) and in 1966 Grizzaffi and Johnny Patrono tried to get the Campisi brothers to back them in some sort of business deal. (1176) Ralph Paul, operator of the Bull-Pen Restaurant and Ruby's closest friend, was characterized by Campisi in an FBI interview as his partner,(1177) This characterization is unique and is probably inaccurate (1178) as Paul's name does not appear in any other materials involving Campisi, and Campisi told the committee that he did not have an independent relationship with Paul, just knew him as a friend of Ruby,(1179) Campisi was also friendly with Abe Weinstein, one of Ruby's former nightclub competitors. (1180) and Campisi was known to have flown to Las Vegas on at least one gambling junket with Weinstein. ( 1181)

    Treatment by the Warren Commission

  425. The only reference to Campisi by the Warren Commission was the inclusion of Campisi's December 7, 1963, interview with the FBI. (1182) The Commission failed to question Campisi himself.

  426. Deposition before the House Select Committee on Assassinations.

    Deposition of Joseph Campisi

    iv. James Henry Dolan

    Biographical Summary

  427. According to an FBI report,(1183) James Henry Dolan was born October 25, 1914, in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. In the 1930's, he left school and worked for a year in a California hotel. In 1938, he returned to Cedar Rapids and worked for his brother-in-law in a food business. In 1941 and 1942, Dolan was employed as a structural iron worker. He reportedly did some boxing as a youth and was associated with people in the boxing profession. He served in the U.S. Army from August 1, 1942, to December 21, 1945, and received an honorable discharge. He moved to Phoenix, Ariz, in November or December of 1950 and established his first permanent address at 4045 North Fifth Street. While in Phoenix, Dolan claimed self-employment at the Jefferson Street Gym. Dolan left Phoenix in the spring of 1951 and moved to the Denver area where, on May 1, 1951, he rented a cabin at Rossdale Ranch, Evergreen, Colo. On January 9, 1952, Dolan pied guilty in the U.S. District Court in Denver to impersonating a Federal officer. He received a 5-year suspended sentence and was placed on probation. (1184)

  428. It was subsequently disclosed that Dolan had violated his probation by "rigging" a poker game in Denver and resorting to violence. On October 3, 1953, a probation violation warrant was issued, and Dolan was arrested in Chicago on October 5, 1953, by FBI agents. At the time of his arrest, Dolan was reportedly employed for the American Television Company in Chicago.(1185)

  429. On November 2, 1953, Dolan's probation was revoked, and he was ordered to serve 5 years in prison, with a 3-year probationary sentence to follow imprisonment. He was incarcerated at the U.S. Penitentiary at Leavenworth, Kans, until October 1954. He was then transferred to the Federal Correctional Institution at Seagoville, Tex., from which he was released on February 21, 1956.(1186) He was placed on probation under the supervision of a U.S. probation officer in Dallas, Tex., until September 25, 1959. (1187)

  430. Following Dolan's release from prison, he was employed for brief period by Windy City Distributors in Chicago. In 1956, he moved to Dallas, Tex., and was employed by the Rush Rug Co., 4729 Maple Avenue, Dallas.

  431. In 1957, he was employed by Sears, Roebuck & Co. in Dallas and by Paymaster Co. (check protectors). From 1958 to 1961, Dolan was employed as the Dallas representative of the American Guild of Variety Artists (AGVA). After leaving AGVA, he was employed for a brief period as a car salesman at a used-car lot owned by Nick Cascio.* (1189) After this, Do]an was reportedly employed as a traveling salesman for an unidentified company. (1190) In 1961, Dolan's attorney in Dallas indicated Do]an was employed by an unidentified wholesale flower concern. (1192)

  432. While Dolan was in Dallas, he resided at 101 North Edgefield and, in 1968, at 5509 Caladium. (1193) In June 1969, he was reportedly residing in Chicago at 423 Wrightwood. (1194) In October 1969, he was residing with his brother in Glenview, Ill. (1195)
    *Cascio is described by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms as a "traveling criminal" whose specialties are planning large burglaries and robberies and acting as a fence. (1190)

  433. Dolan's aliases have included Jim de Late, James Harry Dolan, Jim Dolan, Jimmy Dolan, James Bradley, and "Family."

  434. Illegal Activities.--Dolan has been described as one of the two most notorious hoodlums who resided in Dallas. (1196) An informant described him as a strong-arm man who had been employed by Trafficante.* (1197) Dolan reportedIy traveled throughout southeastern and midwestern United States and had numerous underworld contacts throughout these areas. (1198)

  435. His specialties included armed robbery of bookmakers, gamblers, and houses of prostitution, confidence swindles, and shakedown rackets. (1199) Dolan had also, on occasion, professed to be a gambler. A source familiar with union activities reported that a poker game in which Dolan participated was in almost regular session at the AGVA offices. (1200)

  436. Dolan was also associated with bookmaking in Dallas. A 1962 report states that the primary bookmaking operation in Dallas was directed by John Eli Stone, Albert Meadows and Sherman Franklin. (1201) The report lists Dolan among those who were "closely associated with this group and especially with Meadows and Little," who "in addition to gambling themselves extensively, act as strong-arm men or collection men whenever asked." (1202) In 1961 it was reported that Dolan was engaged in "booking" with Johnny Ross Patrono and Bobby Chapman. (1203)

  437. On December 2, 1949, Dolan was held by Illinois police for investigation and subsequently released without charges being filed. (1204) On July 30, 1951, Dolan surrendered to the U.S. Marshal in Denver to face charges of impersonating a Federal officer--he had been involved in impersonating Internal Revenue Service agents. Anthony Colossacco, who was described as a "known gambler, burglar, and exconvict," was suspected of "fingering" the victim for Dolan in the impersonation ploy. (1205) (Colossacco has also been described as an associate of the Smahldone Gang, who are alleged to control gambling activities in the Denver area.) Dolan was convicted on this charge on January 9, 1952, and placed on probation. (1206)

  438. In 1952, Dolan was reportedly involved in a "rigged" poker game in Denver and had resorted to violence, threatening the life of the victim of the scheme. (1207)

  439. On July 11, 1951 Denver police arrested Raymond James Conley, Joseph R. Snell and Sidney Neveleff on charges of operating a racetrack swindle in Denver. Dolan was reportedly involved in it. (1208) On July 30, 1951, Dolan surrendered to the district attorney's office in Denver on the same charge. (1,209) He was imprisoned from 1953 to February 21, 1956.

  440. In March 1959, Dolan was reportedly in Hot Springs, Ark., participating in plans to rob a bank messenger at Pearl, Miss. (1210)

  441. Dolan was employed at AGVA from 1958 to 1961. A source acquainted with the union considered it "a racketeer proposition." (1211) The source stated "he did not doubt Dolan may have used his position for extra income by requiring payoffs from band leaders and persons seeking entertainers." (1212)
    * Trafficante was a leading organized crime figure operating out of Florida.

  442. On January 16, 1961, Dolan, George Fuqua, and Betty Lee Johnson were arrested by the highway patrol near Biloxi, Miss. (1213) They were charged with violation of tile Federal Firearms Act (carrying a concealed weapon), possession of stolen property and possession of burglary tools. On January 18, 1961, Dolan and Johnson pled guilty to the firearm violation and were fined. Dolan pied not guilty to possession of burglary tools and was released on bond. (1214) Dolan subsequently entered a guilty plea on October 18, 1963, and received a 5-year suspended sentence.

  443. On February 9, 1961, Dolan was apprehended in Dallas when leaving his home with George Everett Thomas, a "notorious Dallas police character." (1215) There is no indication whether charges were filed.

  444. On February 16, 1961, Dolan was arrested by the Dallas police for breaking into a pay telephone. (1216)

  445. On March 2, 1961, it was reported that three men entered the Melvin Sugarek Ranch, near Beeville, Tex. and held up a poker game, escaping with $26,000. (1217) On February 28, 1961, Fuqua had checked into the Shamrock Motel in Dallas. A large gathering was held there after the robbery; it included Fuqua, Dolan, Charles David Boyd, Bob Fletcher, Eddie Tom Greer, Thurman Giles, Billy Ray Gimes, Garen Insley, Jerry Gordon and an Anderson. (1218) On March 7, 1961, Dolan surrendered to the Texas Rangers in connection with the robbery.(1219) In May 1961, the Beesville grand jury returned no bill of indictment against Dolan. (1220)

  446. On April 4, 1962, Dolan was observed in the company of Eddie Tom Green, who was described by Dallas police intelligence "as a person who, according to their informants, specializes in armed robberies of prostitutes, gamblers, and bootleggers and is known to associate with Dolan and known Dallas hijacker George Fuqua." (1221). On April 25, 1962, an informant advised that Dolan had just returned to Dallas. He would not state where he had been, but did say he was then in the "fire business," meaning arson.(1222) On October 10, 1962, it was reported that Dolan had participated in a robbery of a club financed by Sherman Franklin Little.

  447. On April 17, 1963, it was reported that Dolan had been arrested by the sheriff's office in Baton Rouge, La.(1224) Dolan and Glen Ernest Burnerr were reportedly acting in a suspicious manner at the Holiday Inn in Baton Rouge and were suspected of being in possession of a stolen telephone truck. (1225) On April 18, 1963, it was determined that Dolan was not identified with either person believed to be in possession of the truck. (1226)

  448. On May 10, 1963, a Cadillac was stopped in New Orleans which was driven and owned by Dimitry Saik,* who operated on Bourbon Street. Dolan was also in the car. (1227) On May 21, 1963, it was reported that Dolan had a "large score" set up in the New Orleans area by a "Carlos" (last name unknown), which was to occur on May 26, 1963. Eugene Ruben McCroskey and Carl Angelo de Luna** were also to be involved. (1228)
    * Saik frequented the Town and Country Restaurant owned by Joseph A. Poretto, who was an associate of Carlos Marcello.
    **De Luna was a Kansas City hoodlum.

  449. On June 1, 1963, Dolan reportedly was in Shreveport, La., to meet "Carlos" and plan the robbery, scheduled for June 3, 1963. (1229) Dolan was unable to contact De Luna and McCroskey, so the robbery was postponed again, and Dolan returned to Dallas. (1230)

  450. It was reported that Dolan attempted to gain the assistance of David Fred Hagler and Robert Paul Winters for a June 10 robbery. (1231) Dolan learned, however, that the planned robbery was known to the police, so it was again postponed. (1232)

  451. On June 24, 1963, Dolan was arrested by the New Jersey police.(1233) Dolan was charged with possession of a concealed weapon and auto theft. (1234) He was arraigned on July 23, 1963, in East Windsor Township Municipal Court and released on $4,000 bond. (1235) Dolan pied not guilty and was indicted on August 2, 1963. (1236)

  452. On July 29, 1963, Dolan was arrested at the Executive Inn Motel's private club in Dallas for assaulting a security guard, C.F. Bentley. (1237) On July 30, 1963, Dolan was charged with aggravated assault of a police officer.(1238) On July 31, 1963, Dolan and an unidentified Dallas attorney appeared at the Dallas police station and attempted to get the charge dropped.(1239) According to an FBI airtel, the Dallas Police Department planned to press charges. (1240)

  453. On September 10, 1963, Dolan was found not guilty of a disorderly conduct charge in East Windsor Township Municipal Court, New Jersey. (1241) It was reported that Dolan was free on approximately $12,000 bail on various charges in New Jersey. (1242)

  454. On October 18, 1963, Dolan appeared in the circuit court in Gulfport, Miss., and entered a guilty plea to a charge of possession of burglary tools.(1243) He received a 5-year suspended sentence and was placed on probation for 5 years. (1244)

  455. On November 15, 1963, Dolan was observed in Dallas.(1245) On November 21, 1963, he was seen by FBI agents entering a tire shop, reportedly operated by a Dallas bookmaker, T.B. Turns, as a bookmaking establishment.(1246) On December 9, 1963, Dolan was arrested by the Dallas police, along with Jess Raymond Bridwell and Robert Elmer Woolverton, at the Sheraton Hotel. (1247) They were suspected of planning a jewel robbery (1248) and were found with 36 pairs of crooked dice, two unsigned cashiers checks bearing the heading of a nonexistent Billings, Mont., bank, and a list of 10,000 persons, along with their wagering limits. (1249)

  456. On December 29, 1963, Dolan was given a 1- to 3-year sentence for arson, to be served at the Kansas State Penitentiary. He was released on October 24, 1967. (1250) On July 17, 1972, Dolan failed to appear in the U.S. District Court in Atlanta, Ga., on a charge of interstate transport of stolen property. (1251)

    Organized Grime Connections

  457. Connections with Santos Trafficante.--An FBI report states:

    In late 1960 or 1961, George Fuqua and James Henry Dolan went to Miami, Florida, where Dolan introduced Fuqua to Santos Trafficante, Jr., through Trafficante's associate, Milo Bell. The purpose of the contact was to ascertain if Bell and Trafficante could use Dolan and Fuqua in the "collection" business or as enforcers for Trafficante. Trafficante allegedly told these two Dallas people that he wanted a "bolito man knocked off and roughed up," as this man was holding out on his collections and owed Trafficante some money. Dolan and Fuqua were told by Trafficante that their fee for doing this would be whatever money they would take from the bolito man after roughing him up. This bolito man was pointed out to Fuqua and Dolan by Bell, who also acquainted them with the man's habits and activities. Dolan and Fuqua subsequently "knocked off" this man and, got about. $7,000. About two weeks after this, at Trafficante's request, a second bolito man was pointed out and "set up" by Bell and he, too, was robbed and beaten by Dolan and Fuqua. (1252)

  458. The only other indication of any association. between Dolan and Trafficante occurred in February 1961 when Dolan was arrested in Dallas for breaking into a pay telephone. At the time of his arrest, Dolan was placing a call to Marlowe Bell, who is identical to Milo Bell, and a close associate of Trafficante. (1253)

  459. Connections with Carlos Marcello.--In March 1963, it was learned that Dolan had been on a trip to New Orleans and Mississippi. It was said that Dolan, while in New Orleans, had spoken to Carlos (last name unknown, possibly Marcello), "a big-time New Orleans hoodlum," who told him that the FBI was checking on him and showing his picture around. (1254)

  460. As stated previously, on May 10, 1963, Dolan had been stopped by the New Orleans police in the company of Dimitry Saik, who was said to frequent the Town and Country Restaurant owned by Joseph
    A. Poretto, an associate of Marcello.(1255) On May 21, 1963, it was reported that Dolan had a "large score" set up in the New Orleans area by a "Carlos" (last name unknown), to take place during the week beginning on May 26, 1963.(1256) On June 1, 1963, Dolan reportedly was in Shreveport, La., to meet this "Carlos" regarding the robbery. (1257)

  461. The FBI contacted several informants who stated it was doubtful Marcello would set up a "score" for Dolan. They did state, however, that Nofio Pecora possibly might assist Dolan. (1258) Pecora was a Marcello associate who operated the Tropical Tourist Court in New Orleans. (1259) On February 1, 1963, a New Orleans informant had observed George Fuqua at Martin's Restaurant. across the street from the Tropical Tourist Court.(1260) A 1964 FBI report which listed Nofio Pecora's known criminal associates included the names of Dolan and George Fuqua. (1261)

  462. Other Connections--There are several indications that DoIan was associated with organized crime individuals during the early 1950's when he was in Denver, Colo. Anthony Colossacco allegedly was involved with Dolan in the impersonation case. (1262) Colassacco was an associate of the Smahldone Gang in Denver.(1263) Dolan was known to have been at least acquainted with James "The Weasel Fratiarnno,(1264) a known west coast organized crime figure. Stephen Sambur, a Los Angeles gambler and hoodlum, observed Fratianno, Dolan and Colassacco conferring at the Brown Palace Hotel in Denver. (1265)

    Association with Jack Ruby

  463. When the FBI interviewed Dolan in 1963, he stated he had known Ruby since 1957.(1266) Dolan stated he saw a lot of Ruby when Dolan worked for AGVA. (1267) He also visited Ruby's club on "several occasions." (1268) Dolan stated he "had not been in Ruby's club in over a year and he last saw Ruby about 3 months ago at the Town and Country Restaurant in downtown Dallas."(1269)

  464. When the committee interviewed Dolan, he again admitted knowing Ruby. (1270) He could recall two specific incidents that concerned Ruby and AGVA. The first arose when Ruby wanted a performer to date a customer. While the performer did not want to do she refused to file a complaint. The second occurred when Ruby hit Joe Peterson, the manager of a group that performed a show called Bottom's Up. (1271) Breck Wall ran the group and, in his Warren Commission testimony, confirmed Dolan's account of Ruby's having punched Peterson. Wall added, however, that the AGVA representative, James Dolan, sided with Ruby in the dispute. (1272) He stated, "Jack Ruby and Jim Dolan took the show over and made our kids perform the show." (1273)

  465. Dolan was also associated with R.D. Matthews, another Dallas hoodlum associate of Jack Ruby(1274) who was said to be a frequent visitor to Dolan's AGVA office. (1275) Matthews also assisted Dolan in collecting a "bonus" from a nightclub owner in Hot Springs, Ark.(1276) On May 29, 1963, Dallas police intelligence advised that Dolan had recently been in contact with R.D. Matthews,(1277) allegedly discussing the need for $2,000 to gain the release of their associate, George Fuqua. (1278)

  466. An investigation of telephone calls made by Dolan and George Everett Thomas indicated a call was made to the American Bonding Agency in Chicago, (1279) which is operated by Irwin Weiner, a major figure in organized crime and the Teamsters. Ruby called Weiner on October 26, 1963, and Weiner has admitted previous contacts with Ruby. (1280)

    Treatment by the Warren Commission

  467. Dolan was interviewed by the FBI regarding his association with Jack Ruby, (1281) but was not questioned regarding his organized crime associates or criminal activities. He also was not questioned regarding any knowledge of Ruby's connections with organized crime or the Dallas criminal element.

  468. Dolan was referred to in two other FBI interviews. In one, Jewel Brown stated that Dolan had contacted her in 1959, requesting, that she work for Ruby at the Sovereign Club. (1282) Brown worked for Ruby for 7 months, but quit as a result of a disagreement regarding Ruby's advances toward her. (1283) At the request of AGVA, she returned to the club and completed her contract. (1284).

  469. In the second interview, Lillian McCardell stated that Beatrice Arnell had informed her that Ruby had slapped her at the Carousel. (1285) Arnell went to the Dallas Police Department to report the assault and was told to forget it.(1286) She then went to Dolan and reportedly was told by Dolan "to forget the incident because Ruby had too much on the Dallas Police Department for such a trivial charge." (1287)

  470. As stated previously, Dolan was also referred to in Breck Wall's Warren Commission testimony. (1288)

  471. There is no indication that any Warren Commission staff member interviewed Dolan. He did not testify before the Commission and there is no indication that the Warren Commission was aware of the extent of Dolan's criminal activities.

    Other Information

  472. When Dolan was in Phoenix, Ariz, in 1951, he was observed in the company of James Bradley Lee. (1289) Lee is identical with Eugene Hale Brading, a.k.a. James Braden. (1290) It was the informant's opinion that Brading and Victor Periera might have conveyed to Dolan the idea that he could operate successfully as it "con man." (1291) When FBI agents attempted to interview Brading, he refused to answer any questions regarding himself or his associates.(1292) Braden was detained for questioning in Dealey Plaza on November 22 1963. (1293)

  473. Interview with Dolan by House Select Committee on Assassinations staff.

    NAME: James Henry Dolan Date 3/9/78 Time 2:30 .m.
    Address: Atlanta federal Penitentiary Place: Same
    Interview: Prior to our interview with Dolan, an inmate at the federal penitentiary in Atlanta, Georgia, I conferred with his attorney Roger Thompson as to the nature and scope of the matter to be covered. Unfortunately, Dolan had not been explicitly told the identity of the persons coming to visit him and was a bit apprehensive about an interview. However, once the situation was explained to him and we had an opportunity to speak with his attorney, he was very cooperative. Dolan was an ex-fighter (light heavyweight) who had served time prior to his obtaining a job in Dallas as the AGVA representative in approximately 1957. He stated that he had no connections in getting the job and had an attorney satisfy himself that he would not be violating the Landum-Griffin Act by accepting the position. Basically, he was concerned with enforcing minimum standards for entertaining employees in the Dallas area which included the strip-tease performers. As a consquence of his position, he became acquainted with Jack Ruby whom he described as a poor businessman and "bully."

    John W. Hornbeck
    Date Transcribed Rife 3/14/78

    Two specific incidents caused Dolan to dislike Ruby. The first problem occurred as a result of Ruby trying to cancel the contract of a Breck Wall show called "Bottoms. Up," a fairly well-known musical-style review. During the course of arbitration, voices and tempers became raised and Ruby suddenly punched Joe Peterson ("a little fairy"), supposedly on behalf of Dolan.

    According to Dolan, this one-punch fight was typical of Ruby, who had a reputation for "picking his spots" and was a real "bully," especially around his club where a lot of Dallas policemen "hung out." The second encounter involved a complaint by one of Ruby's strippers who alleged Ruby ordered her to "date" some of the customers, which is against union policy. Unfortunately, said Dolan, the girl did not file a formal complaint, so that the union was unable to take any formal action.

    Ruby had a poor business sense and made some unwise decisions when he was "booking" legitimate acts and thus went into "strippers" in order to make money. In contrast to the Weinsteins who ran a good operation, Ruby's Club did not have a great reputation, although Dolan did not have any information re gambling or prostitution. As to AGVA problems, Dolan was not aware that Ruby would "go over his head" or even knew union leaders. Although Ruby frequently talked about his days in Chicago and implied an association with people from his neighborhood who had gained a reputation as part of the criminal element. Dolan could recall no specific problem involving the use of amateur strippers as the problem was tightly controlled by the union and each club was permitted one show per week, using non-union talent provided that the winner was given a future union contract. Dolan had no contract with Eva Grant and thought that the Vegas Club did not use "strippers."

    As to Ruby's slaying of Oswald, Dolan believed that Ruby had an ego drive to impugn people, was an extreme "police buff," had grandiose schemes, wanted to "be a hero" and though he could "get by" with killing Oswald since he had made good police contacts. In sum, Ruby was a "sick man." Hearsay was that Ruby took "uppers" as he was extremely aggressive. Another common story was that Ruby had been run out of Chicago by the mob, although Dolan had not heard that Ruby was mob-connected in Dallas. Socially, Ruby liked to associate with anyone who was a "figure." Dolan acknowledged that he was very familiar with the gambling "scene" in Dallas which he described as mostly "freelance" with no mob control. He knew that Civello was at Appalachia in 1957 but had no real organization of which Dolan was aware. Ruby was not a part of the gambling picture in Dallas and Dolan could not conceive of Ruby being connected to the mob, as he was too erratic and closely associated with policemen all the time.

    We went over the list of names of Ruby associates and Dolan commented upon some of them. Certain names like Baker, Weiner and Dorfman he recognized as Chicago union officials but whom he did not know personally. MC Willie was friendly with Ruby and was a "man about town" although usually he was hurting for money. His only real "connection" was with Benny Benion in the 1940's. Dolan understood that Ruby had lent MCWillie money and that the trip to Cuba in 1959 was to collect the sums advanced. R. D. Matthews was another well-known gambler, probably known to Ruby, since he frequented the "joints" of Dallas. Joe Campisi was a familiar name in Dallas as a restauranteur but Dolan had no information as to his gambling or book-making. H.L. Hunt was known as a gambler who had gotten "taken" in some card games but Dolan had no specific information. He also knew Kirkwood, Bonds, and Jack Todd but could not relate any particular association with Ruby. Jim Braden, or Brading, was unfamiliar to Dolan until I mentioned Phoenix and James Brady Lee, in connection with some boxing promotion. Dolan stated that he would be happy to identify a photo but he could not be sure that Lee was the person also known as Braden. We had to leave as the pre-dinner "lock-up" ritual was being observed but Dolan and his counsel indicated that he would try and refresh his memory and would contact us if he had additional information. I stated that we would provide a letter indicating that Dolan had been cooperative if necessary.


    Identifying Information:
    Name. James Henry Dolan Date 3/9/78 2:30 PM
    Address: Atlanta Federal Penitentiary Place: Same ....
    City/State: Atlanta Georgia Telephone:
    Date of Birth:M or S:
    Social Security:Spouse
    Physical Description:
    Height: Color Eyes Hair
    Weight: Special Characteristics_____
    Ethic Group: _____________________________
    Personal History:
    a. Present Employment: Inmate , was an AGUA representative
    Address: Atlanta Federal Penitentiary, Atlanta, Georgia
    b. Criminal Record
    1. Arrests
    2. Convictions
    Additional Personal Information.
    a. Relative(s): Name: Knew Ruby, etc.
    b. Area frequented: Atlanta, Dallas
    c. Remarks:
    Investigator John W. Hornbeck
    Date: Typed 3/13/78. Rife Form #4-B

    v. Alexander Phillip Gruber

    Biographical Summary

  474. Alexander Phillip Gruber was born February 1, 1911, in Chicago. (1294) In the early 1930's he moved to New York. In February 1942, he went to the Los Angeles area,(1295) with a short stay in Chicago in between. (1296) He was married in New York and had two children.(1297) Eva Grant told the Warren Commission that Gruber's nickname was "Musty."(1298) Gruber, now retired, was previously employed as a scrap metal dealer in the Los Angeles Burbank area. (1299)

    The Committee's Investigation

  475. The materials reviewed by. the committee gave no indication of Gruber's financial or social position, nor of his political or law enforcement connections. The committee obtained a copy of Gruber's criminal record from the FBI, which showed a number of theft-related arrests and dispositions in various jurisdictions.(1300)

  476. Relationship with Ruby. Alex Gruber told the FBI that he grew up in the same neighborhood as Jack Ruby, went to grammar school with him, and even lived with him for approximately 1 year in Chicago boarding house, when they were both about 20 years old. (1301) Gruber told the committee that Ruby's father lived in his neighborhood, although Ruby did not, that Ruby would hang around his neighborhood, and that they became friends(1302) and would go to football games and boxing matches.(1303) Gruber described his Chicago relationship with Ruby as "very close."(1304) In his Warren Commission testimony Ruby had described Gruber as a "bad kid in those days. * * *"(1305) Following his stint as Ruby's roommate, Gruber moved to New York and lost contact with Ruby.

  477. The time of Gruber's next contact with Ruby is uncertain. In 1964, Gruber told the FBI that he saw Ruby in 1946 or 1949, when Gruber stopped in Dallas en route to Chicago. (1306) This social visit was apparently the sole motive for the Dallas side trip. In 1978, however, Gruber told the committee that he and another individual were on the road selling pots and pans and that Dallas was one of the stops on their itinerary.(1307) When questioned by FBI agents immediately following the assassination weekend, Gruber stated that he had taken this trip about 10 years prior, which would place it in 1953. (1308) In interviews Gruber has stated that Ruby and he had met at Ruby's nightclub; he told the committee that he had stayed in the club (and in Dallas) for only a few hours.(1309)

  478. Their next contact occurred about 2 weeks before the assassination when Gruber again went out of his way to visit Ruby in Dallas, this time arriving from Joplin, Mo. Gruber told the FBI in 1964 that he had been in New York attending a relative's wedding and had then gone to Joplin to get information about a carwash facility. (1310) In 1978, Gruber stated that he could not have gone to a wedding at that time, but admitted that he was in Joplin.(1311) Gruber said he decided to visit Ruby because Joplin was only 100 miles from Dallas. (1312) "I don't know why I went there, really," said Gruber, "'I can't remember. I just went there." (1313)

  479. In 1964, Gruber said that he had stayed in Dallas for several days, seeing Ruby a number of times, including one visit to the Carousel from 6 p.m. until closing. (1314) Yet in 1963, Gruber had told the FBI that he had been in Dallas only 1 night and part of the following day. (1315) When Gruber and Ruby did meet, they discussed past experiences in Chicago, Ruby's business problems involving non-union dancers, Ruby's problems with his sister, and Gruber's possible involvement in a carwash facility. (1316) (Ruby told the Warren Commission that Gruber had also tried to interest Sam Ruby in the carwash endeavor.) (1317) Ruby asked if Gruber had any connections with the labor union (AGVA), which Gruber did not, (1318) and promised to send Gruber a dachshund puppy that he owned. (1319) While in Dallas on this trip, Gruber also visited (for the first time) Eva Grant, who was hospitalized at the time. (1320)

  480. Gruber called Ruby on the telephone at the Carousel November 17, 1963, at 9:28 p.m.(132l) This call lasted 8 minutes, and Gruber surmised that it involved the possible purchase of letters for the marquee signs at the Carousel from a Los Angeles company, although Gruber's recollection of the call was extremely limited. (1323)

  481. Ruby called Gruber following the President's assassination, at 2:37 p.m. (1324) Gruber stated that he received the call 20 minutes after the assassination, (1325) but he must have meant 20 minutes after he learned of the event if the times are to coincide. This was one of the first calls made by Ruby that afternoon, and he was very upset. Gruber said Ruby sobbed on the telephone when speaking of the assassination and finally had to hang up, being unable to continue. In 1963, Gruber related this conversation as follows:

    RUBY. Did you hear what happened ?
    GRUBER. You mean the shooting of the President ?
    RUBY. Yes, ain't that a terrible thing. I'm all upset and my sister is hysterical. You don't know this, Al, but I started all my programs with a patriotic number. I'm crying and I can't talk to you anymore.

    In his 1964 FBI interview, Gruber mentioned that they had discussed the carwash business and the dog that Ruby was to send, before the news of the assassination was brought up. (1327) In 1978 he stated that only the dog was discussed. (1328) Telephone records indicate that the call only lasted 3 minutes, (1329) casting some doubt on Gruber's fuller 1964 account.

  482. Gruber had three subsequent, contacts by mail with Ruby. The first involved the sending of a puppy to Gruber, which Ruby had instructed Andrew Armstrong, a Carousel employee, to take care of while Ruby was in jail. (1330) The second was a letter which Gruber sent to Ruby several months after the Oswald shooting.(1331) This letter was missing from the Dallas police department files when the Committee examined them in 1978. Gruber had told the FBI that in the letter he expressed his sorrow over Ruby's predicament. (1332)

  483. The third mail contact was a letter from Ruby, postdated February 4, 1964. It had a return address of 505 Main St. Dallas. In this letter, Ruby acknowledged receipt of Gruber's letter, thanked him for it, mentioned the dog, and said he was sorry that Gruber had been caused so much trouble as a result of the call made to him, November 22, 1963.(1333) Ruby was ostensibly referring to the FBI's questioning Grubber, but there had also been an anonymous telephone threat at 12:45 a.m. on November 25, 1963, at Gruber's home. in which the caller stated "ask him [Gruber] if he likes livin'."(1334)

  484. The FBI also investigated another alleged Ruby to Gruber telephone call on Sunday morning, November 24, 1963, prior to the Oswald shooting. The FBI had received information from the Los Angeles police department that the proprietor of a hamburger stand related (on November 26, 1963) that a man named Gruber had told him of such a call. (1335) The man supposedly said that Ruby had told him he was going to shoot Oswald. Possible verification of the incident was a reference to a Gruber-Ruby 'acquaintance "back East," possibly in Chicago. The proprietor had denied this story when the FBI spoke to him on November 27, 1963, and although a different source mentioned the same basic story to the FBI, this second source's information was at best third or fourth-hand hearsay. Verification was not conducted by the FBI. (1336) Gruber has denied any knowledge of such an incident and of any weekend calls from Ruby besides the one on Friday afternoon. (1337)

  485. It is known that Eva Grant called Gruber within 10 days of the assassination to inquire about the dog and to thank Gruber for his visit to the hospital,(1338) although Gruber had no recollection this call. (1339)

  486. Despite his relationship with Ruby, Gruber stated that he had no knowledge of Ruby's Dallas associates or activities, legal or otherwise. (1340) He has remarked that Ruby .came from a fine family and had always been patriotic, (1341) although Gruber never considered Ruby to be interested in politics. (1342)

    Treatment by the Warren Commission

  487. The Warren Commission's treatment of Alex Gruber was best cursory and without any focus, although staff counsels Hubert and Griffin wrote a memorandum that referred to the investigation of Gruber. (1342) Gruber himself was not questioned by the Commission. Alice Nichols,(1344) Ralph PauL(1345) Hymen Rubinstein, (1346) and George Senator(1347) said that they had never heard him. Earl Ruby knew that Gruber and Jack Ruby had lived together in Chicago and that Ruby had called Gruber on November 22.(1348) Eileen Kaminsky also had heard of this phone call.(1349) As noted earlier, Gruber was also mentioned in the Commission testimony of Ewe Grant and Jack Ruby. (1350)

  488. Deposition of Gruber by House Select Committee on Assassinations staff.

    Examination of Alexander P. Gruber

    vi. Paul Roland Jones

    Biographical Summary

  489. Paul Roland Jones was born August 23, 1909, in Pittsburg, Kans. On February 1, 1931, he was arrested for first degree murder. (1351) He was convicted of murder in 1931 and sentenced to life imprisonment, but he was pardoned on July 8, 1940. (1352) Jones stated that he was pardoned from the Kansas City Penitentiary by Governor Husman. (1353) After Jones was released, he became involved in the egg dehydration business. (1354)

  490. In late 1940, Jones moved to Dallas. He stated in one interview that he started gambling operations in Dallas about 1942.(1355) In September 1945, Jones was involved in the operation of the San Jacinto Liquor Store in Dallas. (1356) On December 4, 1945, he went to Mexico City to operate a casino, Casa Latino Americano.(1357) He resided at Latin American Apt. 1, Mexico, D.F, and had an office at the Reforma Hotel.(1358) In April 1946, he returned to Dallas. (1359) He returned to Mexico for a brief period in July 1946 but returned to Texas soon after this trip. (1360) In November and December 1946, Jones was involved in a bribery case with officials of Dallas County. In 1947, Jones was arrested for possession of narcotics in Laredo, Tex.(1361) He served approximately 2 years in Leavenworth on the narcotics violation, and after losing his bribery appeal, he was incarcerated at the Texas State Prison at Huntsville on the bribery conviction. (1362) He was released from prison in March 1952. (1363)

  491. Jones stated that after he was released from prison he contacted representatives of the Chicago syndicate to seek some held getting established. (1364) Jones stated that, with the support of the Chicago group, he briefly operated a shrimp brokerage business in 1952, but closed this business and opened about six small beer taverns in Dallas.(1365) Jones discontinued the tavern business and left Dallas about 1953. (1366)

  492. Jones stated that after leaving Dallas, he had been in Moab, Utah, for about 1 year, promoting uranium mines; then went to Birmingham, Ala., for about 2 1/2 years; and then went to Charlotte, N.C, for about 3 years. He operated a chicken farm in Charlotte which, according to Jones, was primarily concerned with research into the production of disease-free eggs.(1367) During this period from 1958 to 1960, when Jones was operating the egg research farm, he was associated with Harry M. Hoxsey, who operated a cancer clinic in Dallas for many years until his operation was declared illegal. (1368) Jones stated he would frequently visit his associate in Dallas, and at least part of the time he maintained an apartment in Dallas. (1369)

  493. Paul Roland Jones, since deceased, used the following aliases: Duck Jones, Buck Johnson, and Paul Thomas.

  494. Legal activities.-Jones stated he had been in the brokerage business and the egg and poultry business since the time he was 30 years old. (1370) Eva Grant was also told that Jones was in the eggs brokerage business.(1371) He was also involved in the acquisition and operation of a liquor store in Dallas. (1372) Jones stated that in 1959 he was in the shrimp brokerage business for a short period. (1373) He then operated some beer taverns in Dallas. (1374) He discontinued the beer taverns and became involved in the operation of a chicken farm in North Carolina.(1375) In the 1960's, Jones claimed to be involved in the promotion of low-cost housing developments.(1376)

  495. Considering Jones' numerous arrests and his frequent changes of residence and occupation, his financial and social position appears somewhat unstable.

  496. There is some evidence Jones had political and law enforcement connections. He obtained a pardon from a life sentence in 1940. In Dallas, he associated with several law enforcement officials. (1377)

  497. Illegal activities and organized crime.--Jones had been actively engaged in criminal activity since the 1930's. In February 1931, he was convicted of first degree murder. In the 1940's, he had several arrests for vagrancy and investigation. In 1946, he was rested for attempted bribery; in 1947 for conspiracy of concealing narcotics. (1378)

  498. Jones has been described as a "prominent member of the Weinberg gang and a go-between for the Chicago mob." (1379) An FBI report described the Weinberg gang as having hoodlum contacts in Texas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Indiana, Michigan, Arkansas, and many other States.(1380) Through an investigation of the gang, it was determined that Dallas was the "terminal point" for "gang business" ventures in and out of Mexico and that the gang had reportedly established a branch office in the Reforma Hotel, Mexico City, supervised by Jones. (1381)

  499. According to the FBI report, Weinberg also attempted unsuccessfully to gain control of the gambling, slot machines and juke box activities in the southern States. The Weinberg gang apparently had a connection with the Capone syndicate, because on several occasions prominent members of the syndicate were seen in conference with Weinberg and other members of the gang.(1382)

  500. Jones stated that soon after his release from Lansing in July 1940, he had been directed by Nick de John of Chicago to come to Dallas to survey the area as to the possibility of taking over gambling, slot machines, bookies, and the numbers racket.(1383) He had been instructed to live in Dallas and to become a local sportsman.(1384) He followed instructions. During the war dealt exclusively in black marketing gasoline coupons and other items in conjunction with Nick de John and other Chicago racketeers. (1385)

  501. Jones advised Nick de John that the Dallas syndicate was composed of Benny Binion, Ivy Miller, Earl Dalton and others. It was his opinion that they should not take over the gambling in the area.(1386) He reported that business in slot machines, juke boxes and beer and other items was a fertile field. (1387) Jones told the FBI that he started in gambling activities in Dallas about 1942.(1388) Nick de John provided Jones with funds to buy the San Jacinto Liquor Store.,(1389) He also purchased other unidentified businesses and property. (1390)

  502. De John sent James Weinberg, Paul Labriola, Martin Ochs, James Barcells and Dannie Lardino to assist Jones. Paul Labriola and James Weinberg were described by Jones as being members of the Guzik mob.(1391) De John told Jones these individuals were "too hot for Chicago." (1392) They developed many contacts in Dallas for the sale of whiskey and beer. These contacts included Abe O. Schepps, Carl Dueart, Southern Distributors, and Glazier Wholesale Drug. (1393)

  503. Some time during the early 1940's, Marcus Lipsky arrived from Chicago and told Jones he had the OK from the Chicago syndicate for the purchase of slot machines and music routes throughout Texas, Louisiana, and Arkansas. (1394) Jones doublechecked with De John, who confirmed Lipsky's story.(1395) Jones acted as Lipsky's front man in the acquisition of various companies. lie assisted Lipsky in arranging the handling of his notes by the Mercantile National Bank of Dallas. (1396) in October 1945, they purchased it portion of the Southwestern Amusement Co. (1397) They also purchased interests in the Mineral Wells Music Co., the Tristate Music Co. the Western Distributing Co., the Delta Music Co., and the Shreveport Novelty Co. (1398) All these transactions were arranged by Jones. (1399) Jones was to receive '25 percent of the profits from the operations in Dallas and 10 percent for the operations outside of Dallas. (1400)

  504. At some point during 1945, a dispute arose between Lipsky and Weinberg. Lipsky heard that Labriola and Weinberg were members of Murray Humphreys' and "Loud Mouth" Levine's group. (1401) According to Jones, Weinberg was the self-appointed leader of the gang of hoodlums sent by De John, and he wanted a cut of Lipsky's profits.(1402) De John came to Dallas to settle the dispute. He ordered Weinberg to confine his activities to the operation of the San Jacinto Liquor Store, and Lipsky to handle the slot machines, pinball, and juke boxes. (1403)

  505. In November 1945, Joe Green, Marcus Lipsky, and John Waterman met in Dallas to discuss establishing gambling activities in Mexico. (1404) Jones agreed to go to Mexico as a front for Lipsky. He arrived in Mexico City on December 4, 1945. He was to receive $25,000 for setting up the operation. (1405) Jones waited in Mexico City for Paul Mann to arrive (Mann was involved in bookmaking activities). Mann ordered Jones to make the political arrangements with the Mexican officials. (1406) They established a casino called the Casa Latino Americano.(1407)

  506. In mid-April 1945, Dallas police picked up Jones, along with Sam Yaras, Lou Schneider, a taxicab driver named George, Julius Breakstone, Leo Goldsand, Marcus Lipsky, James Barsell, Paul Labriola, James Weinberg, and William Joseph Messing for investigation of swindling.(1408) According to Jones, they were told to leave Dallas. (1409)

  507. On July 6, 1946, Jones met in Fort Worth, Tex., with James Weinberg, Paul Labriola and John Miro.(1410). On July 13, 1946, Jones was arrested in Oklahoma City, along with Mike Weinberg, James Weinberg's brother, Sam Gilbert, and Thomas Needing. They were charged with vagrancy and held for general investigation. (1411) They were released July 15, 1946, and apprehended again upon their arrival in Dallas. (1412)

  508. Jones apparently broke with the Weinberg gang around this time. (1413) In August 1946, the gang was taken to the Dallas County line by local authorities and told never to return. (1414)

  509. Jones returned to Mexico City on July 23, 1946.(1415) He was arrested there on July 27, 1946, by Mexican authorities and interviewed by the FBI. (1416) On August 10, 1946, IRS agents returned Jones to Dallas. He was turned over to the custody of the Dallas County Sheriff on September 16, 1946, based on a warrant charging him with theft. (1417) Jones was released on $2,000 bond on September 16, 1946.(1418) He departed for Chicago on September 18, 1946, and returned to Dallas on November 1, 1946. (1419)

  510. Jones had also been involved in the bribery attempt of Dallas officials. In June 1946, Steve Guthrie won the Democratic primary election for sheriff in Dallas County. He was to take office in January 1947.(1420) The district attorney was also retiring, and a "reform" candidate was coming into office.(1421) According to Jones, prior to this time illegal operations had been carried on with the consent of Sheriff Smoot Schmid and various members of the Dallas Police Department. (1422) Payments were made to Attorney T.K. Erwin of Dallas who reportedly transmitted the payments to the appropriate people.(1423)

  511. Jones stated that he believed it would be impossible to operate illegal operations under the new administration, so he made plans to discontinue his activities. (1424) On October 29 or 31, 1946, however, Jones contacted George Butler, a detective with the Dallas police department.(1425) Jones claimed Butler contacted him and informed him that Guthrie wanted to see him. (1426) Jones met with Butler and Guthrie at Guthrie's home on November 1, 1946. (1427) The FBI file contains partial transcriptions of the recordings that were made of this meeting. On one of them, the following statements were made:

    Guthrie mentioned that "Bennie Binion" takes off one million fist per year, and that he gets $2,000 per week during peak periods.
    Jones says that the syndicate "okayed" Lipsky in Dallas.
    Jones mentioned he had been in Havana, Cuba, at one time.

  512. Because these recordings were not completely transcribed, it was impossible to ascertain the entire content of the meeting. An FBI report states that at this meeting, Jones informed Guthrie and Butler that he was the organizational man for the Chicago syndicate headed by Jake Guzik, who had incorporated all of the Chicago syndicate formerly under the leadership of Al Capone. (1429)

  513. On November 3, 1946, Jones called Butler from Chicago and told him that two headmen from the syndicate and two others from Las Vegas, Nev., would be arriving in Dallas on November 5, 1946.(1430) On November 5, 1946, Jones and Jack Knapp. registered at the Adolphus Hotel in Dallas. (1431) On the same date, another meeting was held with Jones, Jack Knapp, Butler, and Guthrie.(1432) Knapp said he represented the Chicago syndicate and that his purpose was to determine if Jones could deliver Dallas as he had promised. (1433) Knapp said he would contact one of the big men in Chicago and have him in Da11as for a meeting at Guthrie's home on November 6, 1946.(1434)

  514. On November 6, 1946, Pat Manning arrived in Dallas, and another meeting was held on November 7, 1946. (1435) Manning identified himself as being a member of the Chicago syndicate. (1436) A teletype dated November 8, 1946, fram the Chicago FBI office advised that Pat Manning was believed to be Pat Manno, "who is in actuality member of the Chicago syndicate and close friend of Joe Batters ( Anthony Accardo )." ( 1437 )

  515. An FBI report states that at the November 7 meeting:

    Arrangements were perfected during this meeting with Manning for the Chicago syndicate to move into Dallas, take over all gambling activities in the county and set up their slot machines and other gambling devices. (1438)

  516. The transcriptions of the November 7 meeting contain the following information:

    --Guthrie states that four men should be run out of town because they could jeopardize the takeover. He states they are de Lois Green, Johnnie Grizzaffi, Junior Thomas, and Mac Barnes. Butler adds Monk Wright.
    --Jones states that Grizzaffi is a local boy who handles dope. Guthrie and Butler state that Grizzaffi is a trigger man.
    --Jones states that Bill Decker was an "old-time bootlegger here. and he's rather a popular sort of fellow and he's been the under sheriff all of the time." Jones claims Decker and Dean Gauldlin (the district attorney) asked Jones if he wanted Dallas, and Jones declined the offer.
    --Guthrie stated that Bennie Binion runs the local gambling syndicate in Dallas from his home in Montana.
    --Jones spoke of setting up a gambling club in Dallas County. He told Guthrie, "Here is my proposition to you. You pick a man, a local man, we will put him in business. We will rent him a building but we will finance it. He will put in some juke boxes, some marble tables, some slot machines. We will get him a mechanic and a pickup truck. We will start hustling getting him some locations, legitimately, no muscles attached. Somebody that you trust, I trust him. We will furnish him all the slot machines, marble tables, punch boards, etc .... We will operate and there will be only one gambling house in the county."
    --Guthrie stated that "We all know Bill Decker is a payoff man with Bennie Binion" and Butler agreed with Guthrie.
    --Jones stated that "Jack Guzik is the main man."

  517. Jones and Knapp left Dallas for Chicago on November 8, 1946, from Syracuse, N.Y. Jones advised he was going to New York City and then to Chicago, where a meeting of the Chicago syndicate was planned for November 18, 1946. (1440) This meeting was allegedly for the purpose of formulating plans for moving into gambling activities in Dallas.(1441) Toll records indicate Jones was in Syracuse, N.Y. from November 13, 1946 to November 4, 1946. (1442)

  518. On December 1, 1946, Jones and Knapp contacted Butler requesting assurance that everything was all right for taking over after January 1, 1947.(1443) Jones indicated he expected to purchase a Dallas night spot for $186,000 by December 2, 1946. (1444) Jones also stated that Pete Strance and Bill Bundy, local Dallas characters, had recently been in Chicago and contacted Eddie Vogel, stating that they had gambling concessions in Dallas after January 1. (1445)

  519. On December 3, 1946, Butler told Jones to keep away from Dallas for 10 days. (1446) It was also reported that a Dallas firm of criminal attorneys was representing the Chicago groups as a go-between in handling the payoffs(1447) On December 16, 1946, the FBI reported that Murray Humphreys, Jack Knapp, Paul Jones, and Jake Guzik were reported to have been in Dallas in the past few days, attempting to make contact with Guthrie for the completion of negotiations for the gambling monopoly in Dallas County. (1448)

  520. On December 18, 1946, the FBI reported that "Romeo" Jack Nappi, Dominic Blasi, Paul Roland Jones and Jess Chilton were charged with attempted bribery of elected officials and held without bond. Pat Manno was also charged but not apprehended.(1449) On January 9, 1947, the FBI reported that Jones was still confined in the Dallas jail. (1450) He was convicted of attempted bribery in 1947 and subsequently released on appeal bond. (1451)

  521. On August 27, 1947, U.S. Customs arrested Taylor Crossland for having brought 48 lbs. of opium into Texas from Mexico.(1452) Cross]and implicated Maurice C. Melton and Jones. Melton was arrested on October 29, 1947, and corroborated the information supplied by Crossland implicating Jones.(1453)

  522. Jones was arrested on October 24, 1947, by Federal narcotics agents.(1454) He was tried in Federal court in Laredo, Tex., and received a 3-year sentence, of which he served over 2 years in Leavenworth. During this period, Jones lost his appeal on the bribery conviction and was transferred to the Texas State Prison in Huntsville. He was released in March 1952. (1455)

  523. When Jones was interviewed by the FBI in 1964, he was under indictment for perjury by a Federal grand jury in New York City. (1456) According to Jones, the indictment had arisen out of the trial of over 20 people in New York in 1959 concerning the Texas Adams Oil Co. (1457) The indictment against Jones was returned in 1960. (1458)

    Relationship With Jack Ruby

  524. When Jack Ruby was interviewed by Federal narcotics agents in October 1947 in connection with the narcotics investigation of Jones, he stated he had known Jones for the past 4 or 5 months. He had been introduced to Jones by his sister, Eva Grant, but had never spoken to him in Chicago.(1459) In a 1963 interview, Ruby stated he had met Jones in 1947 "at the Silver Spur, it was the Singapore Club first, on Ervay Street here in Dallas." (1460) Ruby acknowledged that he was introduced to Jones by Eva Grant. (1461)

  525. In Eva Grant's testimony before the Warren Commission, she stated that she had been introduced to Jones by Dr. Weldon Duncan, who told her that Jones was in the eggs brokerage, business. When interviewed by the committee, she stated that in 1947 she was keeping company with Dr. Weldon Duncan, who introduced her to Jones. (1463) She also stated that Jones offered to buy the club from her,(1464) but she refused to sell. Jones used the telephones at the club on several occasions. (1465)

  526. When asked by the Warren Commission if Jones knew Ruby, Grant responded, "If he did--no; I doubt if he ever even heard of him" and "I don't think he has ever seen him--well, wait a minute, he may have seen the man or heard about him." (1466) Grant was then asked if Ruby had known Jones at the time of the narcotics case (fall of 1947). She responded:

    I don't think he ever saw him as far as I know, but I want to tell you that Paul Roland Jones went to Chicago during the period of those 6 months and he did meet my brother Hyman. I don't know what conversations my brother had--my brother thought he was a nice guy--we didn't know anything about his background. (1467)

  527. When Hyman Rubenstein was asked if Jack Ruby had known Jones, he replied, "He never met Jones. I met Jones through Eva? (1468)

  528. Jones provided yet a different version of his introduction to Jack Ruby. He stated that following his conviction in 1947, he was released on appeal bond and met Dr. Duncan and Grant in Dallas. (1469) A short time later, he went to Chicago and had been in the company of Paul Labriola, Jimmy Weinberg, and possibly Danny Lardino. (1470) Jones stated:

    They had been in the, Congress Hotel to see a man there and met Ruby, whom Jones did not at that time know, coming across the lobby of the hotel. Those with Jones had addressed Ruby by name and introduced him to Jones. (1471)

  529. According to Jones, Ruby asked him about the doctor with whom Eva was associating.(1472) The FBI report of Jones' interview states, "The others accompanying Jones had told him that Ruby was 'OK'."(1473) Jones told Ruby the doctor had a bad reputation, and Ruby said he planned on going to Dallas to straighten his sister out and asked if Jones would help him. Jones stated that, "One of those accompanying Jones had again replied that Ruby was alright and urged Jones to help him, which Jones had agreed to do."(1474) A "very few days later" Jones returned to Dallas, and about the same time Ruby appeared in Dallas. Ruby contacted Jones and asked him for assistance in locating an apartment. (1475)

  530. Jones related substantially the same version of his first meeting with Ruby in an interview on December 17, 1963. (1476) He added, however, that Grant had arranged the meeting between Jones, Labriola, and Weinberg. (1477)

  531. There is conflicting evidence regarding Ruby's involvement in the Dallas bribery incident.

  532. The FBI had reviewed the transcriptions of the recordings, but not the actual recordings.(1478) It was noted in the FBI report that some of the recordings were inaudible and a detailed transcription was therefore impossible. It was also stated that some of the recordings were summarized. (1479) According to the FBI, a review of the transcripts failed to disclose any mention of Ruby.(1480)

  533. The committee received the recordings of the meetings between Jones and the Dallas County officials and George Butler's notes from these meetings. The recordings were almost completely inaudible,

  534. The FBI interviewed George Butler, who stated:

    Ruby was not involved in the bribery attempt. In fact, he had never heard of Ruby until after the investigation and trial had been completed. He stated the way Ruby came into the picture was a number of individuals who were involved in the bribery attempt and in particular Paul Roland Jones began "hanging out" at Ruby's club after the sentence. (1481)

  535. Carl F. Hansson, who was chief of police in Dallas during 1947, stated that "on several occasions" during the Jones investigation, he had read the transcriptions of the phonograph records taken of the various interviews; he did not recall the name Ruby ever being mentioned. Hansson stated that "he positively does not think that the name of Jack Ruby ever came up in the recorded interviews of Jones by Guthrie and Butler." (1482)

  536. Steve Guthrie provided the following version of Ruby's involvement:

    Jack Ruby at that time was a "smalltime peanut" with this group who were going to bribe Guthrie. Ruby's name came up on numerous occasions, according to Guthrie, as being the person who would take over a very fabulous restaurant at Industrial and Commerce Streets in Dallas--Ruby was to run the club. Jack Ruby never in person talked with Guthrie about this matter and, in fact, Guthrie and Ruby had no conversations during this investigation. However, according to Guthrie, Ruby's name constantly came up as being the person who would run the restaurant, and Guthrie said if the records can still be heard, Ruby's name will be heard on numerous occasions. (1483)

  537. Two Chicago reporters also indicated that they had information that Ruby was involved in the bribery case. Frank Kiernan, special assistant to the U.S. attorney in Chicago, received the information from Jack Wilner, a crime reporter for the Chicago Daily News.(1484) Wilner had stated that Ruby was reportedly involved in 1947 with Nick de John, Paul Labriola, Marcus Lipsky, and Paul Roland Jones in an effort to take over gambling in the Texas area. (I485) Morton William Newman, another reporter from the Chicago Daily News, stated he had heard from George Butler that Ruby was involved in an attempt to bribe Steve Guthrie.(1486) He was also advised that Ruby was a particularly close friend of Jones. (1487)

  538. According to the FBI report of Jones' interview, Jones stated:

    * * * he had never mentioned the name ,lack Ruby, and that he could be sure of this, because he had never heard of Jack Ruby at this time. He said that he is sure that neither Manno nor Nappi had mentioned Ruby during the conversations and negotiations with Butler and Guthrie, as Jones was present at all of them. He stated in addition the conversations had not had to do with exactly who would be operating what in the Dallas area, and thus there would have been no occasion for discussion of Ruby or anyone else as the person who was to operate a restaurant at Industrial and Commerce Streets. (1488)

  539. With respect to Ruby's possible involvement in the 1947 narcotics case, Hyman Rubenstein was subpenaed to testify at Jones' in 1947. (1489) He told the Warren Commission:

    It seems that some of Paul's associates were smuggling dope, by airplane, from Mexico-across the line--and Paul grabbed. They found my ticket, I think one of my cards, in his pocket. So, I am subpenaed. (1490)

  540. When asked about Jack Ruby's involvement, Hyman stated, "Jack was never in Dallas before in his life. He didn't know nothing about Dallas. He never met Jones. I met Jones through Eva". (1491) Hynan was positive Jack Ruby had never met Jones.

  541. In October 1947, Hyman Rubenstein signed a statement for the Federal Bureau of Narcotics (1492) that he had met Jones about 10 months earlier. He stated:

    He called me at my home and said he was a friend of my sister, Eva Grant, and that he would like to see me if I wasn't too busy. We met at the Sherman Hotel in the Celtic Room, and our conversation was merely general subjects of the day. The next time I met him was on it Sunday morning after he called me at my home, and this meeting was held at the Sherman Hotel in the Celtic Room. He introduced me to Taylor Crossland and Maurice Costello Melton, and we all had breakfast together. The latter meeting held at Hotel Sherman, Celtic Room, took place during the first week of August 1947. (1493)

  542. Hymen also stated he sent a sample of pipe to Jones in Dallas. He saw Jones on approximately the 15th of October 1947. He stated they never discussed narcotics.(1494)

  543. Hyman Rubenstein also mentioned the pipe sample in his Warren Commission testimony:(1495)

    Paul is looking over things down in Dallas that they can't buy. We were looking for stuff in Chicago that you can't buy either; merchandise. One of the, items was pipe; of course, right after the war, you couldn't buy anything. There was nothing to be had. I made a connection with somebody I don't remember now--this is 20 years ago---on pipe. So I sent Paul down a small piece of pipe about 6 inches, and I put a sticker on it and mailed it down to Dallas, and I said, I sent him a letter how else can you send a piece of pipe, that was the best way. I figured nobody is going to use a piece of pipe like that. I put the label on it and mailed it down to Paul Jones. I mailed it to the tavern; Eva's place. He got it. (1496)

  544. Eva Grant also testified about the pipe sample:

    We were buying metals, at least we were trying to buy metals and materials to sell to--in fact, gas companies--one is--I have files, believe me, and I think it's at Jonesboro--is it in Arkansas or Oklahoma? Well, we got the specifications and Paul Roland Jones brought me a piece of metal, maybe 6 inches long--it's a certain type of pipe, rather, he brought me, and this man didn't want it, so I sent it on to Chicago to my brother. It seems to me I sent it to my older brother, Hyman, and he says he knew somebody that might be able to make what you call a finder's fee or broker's fee, but little did we know of Paul Roland Jones' connection--I pick up the headlines and they got Paul Roland Jones in jail somewhere-in Fort Worth. I no sooner picked this up this paper, the paper of this city, my brother is calling from Chicago that the FBI or some organization, one of your organizations went to the Congress Hotel where Jack was staying, and they are questioning him about whether--about what he knew about Paul Roland Jones. I don't think Jack ever heard me mention the name. (1497)

  545. In a Secret Service report, Eva was reported to have said that Jones had suggested several business deals to Eva, one of which involved iron pipe. (1498) According to the report, Jones said he had access to thousands of feet of l 1/4-inch pipe which was stored in a warehouse at Ardmore, Okla. He gave her a 6-inch sample, which she mailed to Hyman in Chicago. (1499) She was interviewed by narcotics agents in Chicago and, she stated, was shown books of photographs, but only recognized Jones.(1500) Grant stated she was "absolutely positive" that none of her brothers were ever involved in the narcotics business. ( 1501 )

  546. The Federal Bureau of Narcotics file on Jones, Crossland, and Melton states that prior to their arrests:

    The above subjects were surveilled during the course of this investigation and they checked into the Central Park Hotel, Chicago, on August 2, 1947. While at the hotel they made several phone calls which were checked out and the number of Kedzie 1717 was listed to Hyman and Jack Rubenstein, 3650 West Lexington, Chicago.(1502)

  547. A Secret Service memorandum states that Customs requested that the Bureau of Narcotics interview Hyman and Jack Rubenstein. (1503) The memorandum states:

    The meeting between Jones, Hyman, and Jack Ruby was arranged by Eva Grant, 1717 South Ervay Street. They met in Jack's room at the Congress Hotel, room G-142. Melton stated that Hyman and Jack Ruby when propositioned concerning narcotics refused to [sic] any part of it. (1504)

  548. Jack Ruby was interviewed by Federal Bureau of Narcotics agents on October 29, 1947.(1505) He identified a photograph of ones and said he had, known him for the past 4 or 5 months. He had been introduced to Jones by Eva. Ruby stated he had never had any conversations with Jones "relative to narcotic drugs nor has he ever talked to Paul Jones in the city of Chicago, either personally or via telephone." (1506) Ruby stated that "he was visiting in Dallas, Tex., on October 2 and 3, 1947," which are the dates that Paul Jones, Taylor Crossland, and Maurice Melton were in Chicago. (1507)

  549. In another interview, Jack Ruby stated:

    Later I heard that I had a phone call from Paul Jones at the Congress Hotel in Chicago where I was staying but I wasn't there at the time and I didn't talk to him. Later some narcotics agents came to see me and showed me some pictures. I think the only one I knew was Jones. I told the agents all I knew but I didn't know anything about narcotics or what those fellows were doing. I know that Hymie, my brother in Chicago, had some kind of deal with Paul Jones. I think it was something to do with iron pipe. Everyone was trying to make a buck in those days after the war when things were short. For all I know, maybe they were shipping narcotics in iron pipe but I didn't know anything about it. (1508)

  550. Ruby was certain he had not met with Jones, Melton or Crossland in Chicago and that Jones had not propositioned him regarding narcotics. (1509) Ruby stated he did not know Crossland or Melton. ( 1510 )

  551. The FBI also interviewed Maurice Melton and Taylor Crossland. Melton stated that "to the best of his recollection he never met Jack Ruby."(1511) He stated that he could have met Hyman Rubenstein and Jack Ruby in Chicago, but could not recall such a meeting.(1512) Taylor Crossland also could not recall meeting Ruby. (1513) He stated that Jones took him and Melton:

    to an unknown motel in Dallas, where Jones introduced them to an individual who might possibly. have been identical with Ruby. Jones and this man went into the motel for about 5 minutes and then Jones returned to the car and said, "We'll have to go to Chicago to dispose of the stuff." (1514)

  552. Jones stated in an FBI interview that from 1953 to the present he had been in Dallas only three or four times a year for brief periods. He stated:

    On most occasions he [Jones] would' stop by once at a club being run by Jack Ruby and see him casually. He said he had no business connections with him. He would also occasionally see Eva Grant at one of the clubs, which at least it part of the time she has been running on behalf of Jack Ruby. (1515)

  553. Jones also stated that he had seen Ruby about a week before the assassination. (1516) In another interview, Jones said he:

    . . . saw Ruby about 10 days prior to the assassination of the President at Dallas. He saw him at the Carousel Club and asked Ruby how he was getting along. Ruby replied he was not doing any good and said "his competitors had become his enemies." He asked Ruby if he could help and Ruby replied that he got himself into the situation and that he had to get himself out. (1517)

    Treatment by the Warren Commission

  554. The Warren Commission concluded that Jack Ruby was not involved with Paul Roland Jones in the 1947 organized crime move into Dallas or the narcotics case. (1518) It offered the following bases for this conclusion:

    --There is no record that Hyman and Jack were prosecuted by Federal authorities in the narcotics case.
    --Jack, Hyman, and Eva denied any participation in any narcotics activities.
    --Jones and his co-conspirators also denied Ruby was involved.
    --One of Jones' confederates stated that Jones propositioned Hyman and Jack concerning the narcotics, but they refused to participate.
    --One of the conspirators implicated Jones, but not Ruby or his brother.
    --According to Jack Ruby, he moved to Dallas to help Eva operate the Singapore Club and because his merchandising business had failed in Chicago.
    --George Butler stated Ruby was not involved in the bribery case. The 22 recordings of the Guthrie, Jones, and Butler meetings failed to mention Ruby and indicated that only one "confederate" would be brought in and he would not be Jewish.

  555. The Warren Report does state that Ruby was friendly with "numerous underworld figures" and included Jones among them. (1520) The Commission concluded, however, that there was no significant link between Ruby and organized crime. (1521)

  556. The Warren Commission decided to discount Steve Guthrie's statement that Ruby was mentioned during the 1947 bribery case and to accept Butler's statement instead. The Warren Commission did not review the actual recordings of the meetings between Jones, Guthrie and Butler. They had the FBI review incomplete transcriptions of the recordings.

    vii. Russell Douglas Matthews

    Biographical Summary

  557. Russell Douglas Matthews was born on July 26, 1920, in Aspermont, Tex. When he was 7, he moved to Dallas. (1522) He served in the Marine Corps from December 1941 to October 1945.(1523) After leaving the Marines, Matthews returned to Dallas, where he remained until 1958. From July 1958 to January 1959, he resided in Havana, Cuba; he was also there from the middle of 1959 to November 1959. (1524) He returned to Dallas and remained there until January 1971. In the early 1960's, Matthews resided in Irving, Tex. (1525) According to FBI reports, Mrs. Donna Sue Helton, a known prostitute, also resided at his Irving address. (1526) FBI reports in 1967 and 1968 list Matthews' address as 4509 Southern Avenue, Dallas. (1527) In 1971, Matthews moved to Las Vegas and, as of 1978, was residing there. ( 1528 )

  558. There is very little information regarding Matthews' employment prior to 1958 when he traveled to Cuba. In his deposition, he stated he could not remember the jobs he had had in Dallas. (1529) Matthews said, "I have been in business by myself most of my life." (1530) He did not elaborate on this statement except to note that he had never been employed in a club in Dallas. (1531) Later in the deposition, Matthews stated he was in the bail bond business in Dallas before moving to Cuba. (1532)

  559. Matthews said that he owned two bars in Cuba. One was in the lobby of the Plaza Hotel, the other on Henio Street; it was called the Sportsman's Club. (1533) He had purchased the Sportsman's Club from a Cuban in 1958. (1534) He acquired the other bar after Castro came to power, in the early part of 1959. (1535) Matthews stated that while in Cuba, he resided "for a while" in the Deauville Hotel. (1536) In two separate FBI interviews, he stated he worked in the gambling casinos at the Hotel Deauville.(1537)

  560. After his return from Cuba, the record again is vague regarding his employment. A 1960 FBI report states that Matthews was operating a bail bond and loan company on Record Street in Dallas. (1538) On September 22, 1961, the FBI was advised that Matthews was residing in an apartment at 3918 Travis Street. Clayton Fowler owned the apartment house. Matthews was allegedly employed as a bondsman for Fowler. (1539)

  561. A 1962 FBI report states that during 1960, Matthews was employed as a "bouncer" at the New Orleans Room, owned by Joe Slatin. (1540) The informant believed, however, that Matthews would not actually work in the Orleans Room but had arranged an agreement with Slatin so he could be downtown without being arrested for vagrancy. (1541) In his deposition, Matthews admitted knowing Slatin. (1542)

  562. Two 1963 FBI reports state that Matthews was thought to be part owner or manager of the Redman Club in Dallas.(1543) Another FBI report indicates that Matthews frequented the Redman Club. (1544) The club was reportedly being used by its members and proprietor for gambling activities, specifically high stake poker games.(1545) In his deposition, Matthews indicated he had heard of the Redman Club and described it as a "social club for members only." (1546)He stated, "They might have had some friendly poker games occasionally between the members. It was not a gambling club." (1547) Matthews did not state that he had any interest in this establishment.

  563. A 1967 FBI report notes that by all indications, Matthews was manager of the Skynight Club in Dallas. (1548) The report states that in 1966, for a short period, Matthews operated the Skynight Club. In his deposition, Matthews admitted having heard of it. (1549)

  564. After Matthews moved to Las Vegas, he obtained a work permit from the Las Vegas police department on January 26, 1971, to work at the Paddock Racing Sports Club for Johnnie Lane. (1550) He worked at this club for 3 1/2 years.(1551) In 1978, Matthews was employed by Benny Binion at the Horseshoe Club in Las Vegas. (1552)

    Treatment by the Warren Commission

  565. The FBI interviewed both Matthews and his ex-wife, Elizabeth Ann Matthews, nee Elizabeth Ann Hedlund, a Dallas prostitute. (1553) The Warren Commission conducted no further investigation of Matthews.

  566. In the FBI interview, Matthews stated he had known Ruby for approximately 12 years. (1554) He considered Ruby to be only a "passing acquaintance." (1555) He had never bad any discussions with Ruby except "to pass the time of day." (1556) Matthews was not aware any gambling activities that Ruby may have had in Dallas(1557) and stated he had never heard of Ruby or Oswald being in Cuba. (1558) He indicated he had no information that Ruby was involved with anyone else in the killing of Lee Harvey Oswald. (1559)

  567. The FBI questioned Elizabeth Ann Matthews regarding a 13-minute telephone call made on October 3, 1963, from the Carousel Club to a phone listed in her name. (1560) She stated that she did not know Ruby and could not recall having received a long distance telephone call from Dallas on or about October 3, 1963.(1561) She did state, however, "it could have possibly been a call from some 'character' or some businessman with whom she is acquainted at Dallas." (1562)

  568. R.D. Matthews was mentioned in two other FBI reports as ,being an associate of Ruby. Charles Duarte stated that Matthews was well acquainted with Ruby.(1563) Robert Donald Lawrence listed Matthews among a group of individuals whom he considered to be friends and associates of Ruby's. (1564) He described Matthews as a "strong arm man." (1565)

  569. The FBI interviews of Matthews and his ex-wife are very brief. They never clearly ascertained the extent of Ruby's association with Matthews. There is no evidence that Matthews was questioned about his criminal activities and associations or the phone call made to his ex-wife.

  570. Matthews stated in his committee deposition that he had never heard of this phone call. (1566) He also stated that, although he remembered being interviewed by the FBI, he did not remember being asked when he first met Ruby. (1567) When he was shown the FBI interview of December 15, 1963, he indicated he did not remember saying he had known Ruby for 12 years. He stated, "Twelve years; I don't remember saying that. No. sir, I don't remember saying that I'd known him 12 years and I don't think I had."(1568)

  571. There is also nothing to indicate that the FBI questioned Elizabeth Ann Matthews regarding any knowledge of Ruby's association with her ex-husband or of his involvement in criminal activity. Matthews stated in his deposition that he could not remember exactly when he was divorced, but it was right about the time of the assassination or in the late 1950's. (1569) Elizabeth Ann Matthews presumably may have had additional information regarding Matthews' activities in Dallas and Cuba during the 1950's.

    Legal Activities

  572. Matthews' only apparent legitimate vocation and source of income was the management of bars, clubs and restaurants. He also was allegedly involved in the bail bond business. (1570) Based on his numerous arrests,(1571) financial ventures in Cuba and relatively recent move to Las Vegas, Matthews' financial and social position appears to be somewhat unstable.

  573. Matthews only known law-enforcement connection was with Sheriff J.E. Decker of Dallas County. In an FBI interview on September 29, 1959, Decker stated he had known Matthews all of his adult life.(1572) There is no information to determine exactly the nature of Matthews' relationship to Decker. One FBI report states, "Matthews has always been known to be very 'closed mouth' and is known to have a deep dislike for all law-enforcement agencies."(1573)

    Illegal Activities

  574. Matthews had been actively engaged in criminal activity since the 1940's. He was described in one FBI report as a burglar, armed robber, narcotics pusher and murderer. (1574) Another described him as armed and dangerous, stating that he had been known to carry firearms and to use explosives in the past. (1575) Among other violations, Matthews was arrested in 1949 in Cleburne, Tex, for burglary; he was arrested and convicted in 1950 for violating the Federal Narcotics Act; in 1966 he was arrested in Oklahoma City for possession of a concealed weapon; and he was arrested in 1967 in Garland, Tex., for bookmaking; in 1976, he pied guilty in Las Vegas to a violation of the Wagering Act. (1576 )

  575. Hollis de Lois Green gang. An FBI report stated that subsequent to World War II in 1948, Matthews joined up with surviving members of the Hollis de Lois Green gang. This gang specialized in burglaries of pharmaceutical houses and large drugstores for narcotics and cash. (1577)

  576. In 1959, Sheriff Decker reported that past associates of Matthews are "underworld characters" Hollis de Lois Green, Jettie Bass, Nick Cascio, James Robert Todd and Angelo Thomas Casten. (1578) In his deposition, Matthews admitted knowing James Robert Todd. (1579) He described Todd as an acquaintance from 25 years ago who, to his knowledge, was not involved in gambling activities or safecracking. (1580)

  577. There is also evidence that Matthews was associated with Angelo Thomas Casten. (1581)

  578. In a 1963 FBI report, Matthews is included among a group of people considered the higher echelon in Dallas bookmaking. (1582) A 1964 report states that Matthews was known to have been involved in bookmaking activities in the Dallas area following his management of a private club which catered to small-stake poker games.(1583) Matthews was described by three informants as "a strongarm man for the collection of gambling debts, hired by Dallas bookmakers John Eli Stone and Isadore Max Miller."(1584) The same report (1585) lists three separate groups of bookmakers who could be considered the major operations in the Dallas area.(1586) One was composed of John Eli Stone, Isadore Max Miller and James Woodrow Stone.(1587) It was reported that on March 9, 1964, John Eli Stone and Matthews left Dallas together, via Delta Airlines, for Las Vegas. (1588) This report also states that Matthews was considered as one of the less significant Dallas bookmakers. (1589) A 1967 FBI report states that Matthews was currently operating a bookmaking operation in Garland, Tex.(1590) Matthews also was arrested several times for bookmaking activities. (1591)

  579. In his deposition, Matthews admitted knowing John Eli Stone for 30 years, but said he had no business dealings with him. (1592) He did not recall taking a trip with Stone from Dallas to Las Vegas. (1593) Matthews did admit knowing Max Miller and described him as an "old acquaintance."(1594) Matthews stated he never saw Miller involved in any gambling activities.(1595) A 1973 application for a wiretap listed Isadore Max Miller and John Stone, along with R.D. Matthews, as allegedly being involved in illegal gambling activities. (1596)

  580. A 1964 FBI report states that James Henry Dolan and R.D. Matthews were "notorious hoodlums."(1597) Dolan was described by an informant as a strong-arm man who had been employed by Santos Trafficante, Jr. a leading Florida organized crime leader. (1598) Dolan was also described as a strong-arm man employed by John Eli Stone and Isadore Max Miller to collect gambling debts. (1599) A 1962 FBI report states that Matthews was a Dallas hoodlum who visited Dolan regularly. In his deposition, Matthews admitted knowing Dolan, but said it was only a casual relationship. (1600)

  581. The FBI files indicate that Matthews had been the subject of investigation by the Dallas FBI office over a period of years, going back to 1963 for possible violation of the antiracketeering statutes and more recently the Federal gambling statutes. (1601) The record does not make clear whether these investigations led to arrest or conviction. They probably at least contributed to Matthews' arrest in 1966 for failure to pay for a gambling tax stamp and his guilty plea in 1976 for violation of title 18, U.S.C. section 1084 (ITWI). (1602)

  582. In 197a, an FBI airtel from Dallas reported that an application had been made for an order authorizing a wiretap of Matthews, along with several others.(1603) This application stated that there was probable cause to believe Matthews was involved in illegal gambling business. Again, it was not clear whether the wiretap led to an arrest or conviction, although Matthews was arrested in 1975 and 1976 on gambling charges. (1604)

  583. On December 13, 1960, Matthews was observed by the Dallas criminal intelligence section. He was seen at the New Orleans Room, 1513 Commerce Street, Dallas, in conversation with its owner and operator, Joe Slatin. This report also states that Matthews was then employed at the New Orleans Room as a "bouncer?(1605)

  584. On January 29, 1961, Matthews was arrested on a vagrancy charge at the Parkering Motel in Dallas. The police ascertained that James Robert Todd had been at the motel with Matthews just prior to the arrest. (1606) In March 1960, Matthews was seen in the company of Jack Todd at Fitzgerald's Bar in Dallas. (1607)

    Organized Crime Connections

  585. A 1976 Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) report states that in 1946 or 1947, Joe and Sam Campisi bought the Idle Hour Bar in Dallas and were known to be associated with Joe Civello and Russell Matthews. (1608) This report also states that when Matthews visited Dallas, he frequented the Egyptian Restaurant owned by Joe Campisi. (1609) An FBI report, dated June 23, 1969, states that Matthews was "hanging out" in the Egyptian Lounge with Sam and Joe Campisi. (1610) Another FBI report states that Matthews may have had some contact and connection with Joe Campisi, since Matthews frequented the Egyptian Lounge. (1611)

  586. While in Las Vegas to depose Matthews in early April 1978, two committee staff attorneys observed Matthews in the company of an individual they believed to 'be Joe Campisi. On April 16, 1978, Dallas intelligence reported to the two staff investigators that Matthews and Joe Campisi had been observed together at an exclusive restaurant ,in Dallas.

  587. In his deposition, Matthews admitted knowing both Joe and Sam Campisi.(1612) He said he had known Sam Campisi all his life, but that they had never had any business dealings. (1613) He had also known Joe Campisi for a long time. (1614) Matthews stated, however, that he did not know Joe Civello, though he had heard the name. (1615)

  588. In 1960, Sheriff Decker reported that in 1958 Matthews visited a gambling casino operated by Nick Cammata. (1616) Cammata was allegedly being investigated by the District Attorney's Office in New York City. In his deposition, however, Matthews stated he did not know Nick Cammata. (1617)

  589. A 1959 FBI report 'states Matthews had visited Cuba prior to the revolution, for Santos Trafficante.(1618) In his deposition, Matthews stated he did not know Trafficante, but he had heard the name.(1619) He also stated he had no association with the Sans Souci, a casino operated by Trafficante in Havana(1620) (it was operated by Trafficante).

  590. Three FBI reports state that Matthews was associated with Salvador Amarena, aka Sammy Paxton. (162l) A February 1963 New Orleans Crime Commission report states that Matthews and George Lewis (or Louis), both of Dallas, visited Sammy Paxton at the Black Magic Lounge. The informant stated that it appeared Matthews had come to New Orleans especially to see Paxton, to offer him an opportunity to open a business in Dallas. According to this report, Matthews told Paxton he could pick his own place and type of operation and he would not have to worry about "heat" because Matthews had Dallas all wrapped up (according to Matthews. "It is my town.").(1622) The informant also indicated that they talked a lot about gambling and racketeers in various cities and their close affiliations with them. (1623)

  591. The same report indicates that on Monday, December 17, 1962, two uniformed police officers came into the Black Magic Lounge. Paxton introduced Matthews and Lewis to them calling them "friends from Dallas."(1624) The informant gathered from the conversation that Matthews and Paxton had worked for Santos Trafficante in the Embers Club in Havana. The Sans Souci was also mentioned. Matthews said the name Raoul Gonzales and indicated Gonzales had been in Cuba and was then in Las Vegas. Matthews also mentioned Tommy Ranzoni (phonetic spelling) as being an associate of "Chile" Mendosa and Gonzales in Havana. The informant stated that it was apparent Matthews and Lewis were partners or affiliated in the Dallas rackets, and that Matthews had worked a big-time gambling house in Havana. ( 1625 )

  592. In his deposition, Matthews admitted knowing Sam Paxton and described him as an acquaintance.(1626) He did not know if Paxton was associated with Trafficante.

  593. In 1978, Matthews was employed by Benny Binion, who operated the Benny Binion Horseshoe Club in Las Vegas. During the late 1930's and the 1940's, Binion had been involved in illegal gambling activities in the Dallas area. He had admitted killing two individuals during this period. (1627) Matthews stated that he had known Binion for 20 or 25 years, (1628) but that he had never had any business dealings with him aside from his current employment.(1629)

  594. Matthews admitted knowing Lewis J. McWillie prior to his trip to Cuba. McWillie had been associated with a club in Dallas prior to going there. In Cuba, McWillie was employed as a pit boss at the Tropicana Casino. In 1978, McWillie was living in Las Vegas. Matthews originally stated he had never met McWillie in Cuba, but later indicated he might have "just run into him."(1630) He claimed he had not maintained contact with McWillie and had had no business dealings with him. (1631)

  595. When asked if there had been a crackdown on gambling activities in 1947 in Dallas, Matthews responded:

    I suppose there might have been. I wasn't involved in it so I don't know, but I have heard this, yes, that they had an election and there might have been something going on before that that was no longer allowed. I have heard this, yes. (1632)

  596. When Matthews was questioned about gambling in Dallas from 1960 to 1963, he responded that he was not aware of any gambling or drug trafficking in Dallas in that period. (1633) He also stated he was not aware of any gun smuggling or narcotics trade with Cuba or Mexico. (1634)

    Relationship With Ruby

  597. In interviews of Ruby associates after the Oswald shooting, Matthews was cited as a friend and associate of Ruby. (1635) In an interview, dated December 15, 1963, Matthews stated he had known Ruby for about 12 years and probably met him through Ruby's operation of the Vegas Club. (1636) He characterized Ruby as a "passing acquaintance."(1637) On October 3, 1963, a long-distance telephone call of 13 minutes was made from the Carousel Club to Matthews' ex-wife. (1638) Elizabeth Ann Matthews could not recall receiving the call. (1639)

  598. When asked when he first met Ruby, Matthews replied:

    I can't really tell you that. I don't know him that well. I don't really know how to answer that. I can't answer that. I don't know. How I really met him, I don't know. (1640)

    Matthews later guessed that he met Ruby in the late 1950's.(1641) He did not recall ever meeting with Ruby. (1642) He stated, "I knew him to speak to him on the street but I don't remember ever having any meetings with him."(1643) When asked what was the nature of his interaction with Ruby, Matthews responded:

    Nothing. He was a man that was well-known around on the streets of Dallas. If you pass by him on the street he's liable to introduce himself to you, so if I'd pass him I'd say hello. I don't know what else to tell you. (1644)

  599. Matthews did not recall the names of Ruby's clubs and stated he could not remember ever being in any club owned by Ruby.(1645) Matthews could not state when he had last seen Ruby. (1646) He maintained he did not see Ruby in Cuba. (1647)

    Associates known by Both

  600. Matthews admitted being acquainted with James Robert Todd for 25 years. (1648) Todd's phone number was found in Ruby's automobile. Todd had admitted knowing Ruby for about 10 or 12 years. (1649) Todd was also associated with the de Lois Green Gang.

  601. A 1958 DEA report suggests that R.D. Matthews and Juanita Phillips (aka Candy Barr) were involved in drug trafficking. (1650) The report states that Matthews served 2 years for possession of cocaine. (1651) In 1957, Phillips was sentenced to 15 years for possession of marijuana, and at the time of the report was out on an appeal bond.(1652) Ruby was also associated with Phillips. On November 13, 1963, a call was made from the Carousel Club to Phillips; it lasted 14 minutes. (1653) One FBI report states that in 1956 Ruby had had a girl friend named Candy Barr. (1654) Another FBI report states that Ruby approached a pilot for the Texas Department of Corrections regarding assistance in obtaining an early parole for Candy Barr. (1655) Matthews admitted knowing Joe Campisi.(1656) Ruby also knew Campisi. On Friday, November 29, 1963, Campisi was advised that Ruby wanted to see him.(1657) Campisi visited Ruby in jail on November 30, 1963. (16:;8) He stated that his last contact with Ruby had been the Thursday before Thanksgiving, when Ruby came into the Egyptian Lounge. (1659) Matthews also allegedly frequented the Egyptian Lounge. (1660)

  602. Matthews also admitted knowing McWillie. Ruby, too, was associated with McWillie. In 1959, McWillie had invited Ruby to visit him in Cuba.(1661) Ruby did subsequently visit McWillie in Cuba. (1662)

  603. Matthews admitted knowing Joe Slatin but did not know if Ruby knew Slatin. (1663) One FBI report states that Slatin may have employed Matthews as a bouncer in his club.(1664) Ruby had also been associated with Slatin in the formation of the Sovereign Club.(1665) The were in fact partners in S & R Corp. during the early part of 1960.(1666)

    Other Information

  604. On June 6, 1964, Earl Manchester, an employee in the Service Department for Braniff Airways, Newark Airport, discovered a letter in a Braniff plane. It was typewritten, dated May 22, 1964, to "Don Jansen" from "S. Martin." Within the letter, the following passage, attributed solely to a "Texas reporter," appeared in quotations:

    For God's sake, don't tell the FBI, but back about February (1963) when I was working for H.L. Hunt, some very prominent Texas men, R.D. Matthews, and I discussed the possibility of doing away with Cheddie [sic] Jagan or Castro or both. Not by the U.S. Government, you understand, but on private basis. Hunt said we could have all the cash we needed, the others were in it, too, on a cash basis. We were going to get Castro sometime when he (Castro) went to Mexico. Understand now, we dropped it. R.D. didn't go for it. Meanwhile, we understood there was a group in Florida with the same idea. Also, the Government knew all about it. (1667)

  605. Lonnie Hudkins, a reporter for the Houston Post in 1963, allegedly told Shirley Martin, a Warren Report critic, that while he was employed as a public relations man for Hunt Oil Co. Hunt personally approached him about going to Mexico to help kill either Castro or Cheddi Jagan, former Prime Minister of Guyana. (1668) According to Hudkins, the project never went forward because he and two other individuals believed the operation was dangerous.(1669) In 1967, Hudkins revealed the identity of one of the other participants to be R.D. Matthews. (1670)

  606. In his deposition, Matthews denied being present at any meeting where the possibility of killing Castro was discussed. (1671) He stated he had never heard people discussing the assassination of Castro.(1672) Matthews did admit hearing the name of H.L. Hunt. (1673)

  607. Deposition taken by the House Select Committee on Assassinations.

    deposition of Russell Douglas Matthews

    viii. Robert Ray McKeown