Researching Alien Abductions

by C. Leigh Culver, Cl.H.


The use of hypnosis as a means of reexperiencing forgotten traumatic events has a long history in psychotherapy. Hypnosis was used in such a manner in the celebrated case of Betty and Barney Hill. The Hills were driving through the White Mountains of New Hampshire from Canada to their home in Portsmouth when they sighted a UFO. Later they were apparently taken aboard the landed craft and subjected to various tests and medical examinations. This occurred in mid September of 1961 (Fuller 3-19). For several months after the experience the Hills were still experiencing traumatic stress symptoms for which they sought psychiatric help. The Hills were referred to Dr. Benjamin Simon who used hypnosis to uncover the cause of the Hills' anxiety symptoms. What Dr. Simon discovered would startle the world and would provide the first glimpse into the abduction phenomenon.

Since the Betty and Barney Hill case, researchers across the world have used hypnosis to help retrieve the sometimes unaccessible memories of abduction/close encounter experiences. This article will discuss useful methods that may be used in researching and obtaining data concerning apparent abductions or close encounters. The use of hypnosis as well as other research adjuncts will be discussed. It is my hope that this article will assist fellow researchers in their work as well as give encountrants an idea of what to expect when looking into their abduction/encounter experiences. This article is by no means the definitive comment on abduction research. It is simply a method that I have found useful from my years of experience as a hypnotherapist and as a forensic hypnotist for the State of Georgia. I welcome and look forward to any ideas or comments from readers.


There is an earnest need for abduction/close encounter research, as well as a need for healing and recovery by those who are encountrants. If this phenomenon is truly what it seems to be, then it is extremely important to obtain as much information as possible about it. As many researchers have pointed out, this phenomenon may very well be the most important issue facing humanity. Should this research ultimately present another meaning, then it is still just as important to obtain a greater understanding of just what is going on.

More and more individuals have become aware of the possibility of human/alien interaction since the publications of such books as COMMUNION, MISSING TIME, INTRUDERS, SECRET LIFE, and more recently, ABDUCTION. The various investigative television programs have also created interest. People are becoming aware. Many individuals are seeking qualified help in uncovering the truth behind their mysterious experiences. One problem the encountrant has is finding qualified help that is familiar with the abduction phenomenon within the mental health profession. Should an encountrant find a mental health practitioner unfamiliar with such cases, he or she in all likelihood, will be diagnosed as having any number of possible personality disorders. I personally know of several cases where this has happened with disastrous results.

If the 1992 Roper Poll is correct, one in fifty people may have had these type experiences (Hopkins, Jacobs, Westrum 15). Based on this information, one may assume that an increasing number of mental health professionals will be confronted with individuals seeking this kind of assistance. This will be especially true for hypnotherapy practitioners. I do not believe it necessary that the practicing hypnotherapist be a licensed psychologist or counselor. I do feel, however, that the hypnotherapist should be well trained and, ideally, to have completed a clinical residency program. The hypnotherapist should have the resources of licensed mental health practitioners and should know when to refer cases to these individuals.


My particular research method uses data questionnaires, cognitive interview techniques, forensic (investigative) hypnosis techniques, dream interpretation, hypnotherapy, and mutual help (support) groups. Every attempt is made to be methodical and ethical with the encountrant's best interests having priority. There must be a keen balance between investigative needs and therapeutic needs. Many individuals having abduction or close encounter experiences may be traumatized in varying degrees so great care should be taken to assist in their healing and recovery.

Many individuals coming into the office have started to question some of their experiences, dreams, or memories, and they want to know what is going on. Some individuals come in for other problems, which upon searching out the cause, end up being related to the abduction phenomenon. My approach is designed to be as non-traumatic as possible, while at the same time, obtaining as much accurate information as possible. My ultimate goal is to help these individuals integrate their experiences into their life in as positive a manner as can be expected. When contacted by individuals who wish to explore their close encounter experiences, I first send them a packet of information outlining my research methods, information on what to expect during the course of the research, and several data questionnaires.


Prior to the initial interview the encountrant completes several questionnaires which include the following: (1) CE-4 (close encounter) Questionnaire, (2) Kappas Suggestibility Questionnaire, (3) Kappas Sexuality Questionnaire, (4) Multimodal Life History Questionnaire, and (5) Medical Questionnaire. These questionnaires will provide a good starting foundation from which to work. (Note--Psychologists or psychiatrists may wish to include various tests relevant to their discipline.)

The CE-4 Questionnaire has questions that relate some of the most often experienced signs or symptoms that have thus far proven to be strong indicators of a close encounter or abduction. I have revised this questionnaire many times and I will likely revise it again. I believe that many "anomalous event" type questionnaires are too leading so I try to keep it simple and non-leading. There are less than twenty questions total including a few "trick" questions. The "trick" questions are designed to find out who might be hypersuggestible in regards to this phenomenon. There are many more indicators or common denominators that could be added to the questionnaire; however, as I've pointed out these questions are too leading. I will find out the rest of the information during the course of the research. Basically, the questionnaire is designed to indicate whether or not an individual is a good candidate for the research.

The Suggestibility and Sexuality Questionnaires were designed by Dr. John G. Kappas. Dr. Kappas, a California based hypnotherapist and Marriage and Family Therapist, is the founder and Director of the Hypnosis Motivation Institute. He has pioneered the concepts of emotional and physical suggestibility and sexuality. These concepts help determine an individual's brain dominance, suggestibility to hypnosis, and general behavior. Knowing an individual's brain dominance as it relates to suggestibility determines the approach that one may take in the hypnotic induction along with the approach taken in therapy (Kappas 19).

The Multimodal Life History Questionnaire provides for a very comprehensive picture of the encountrant's background and life history in detail. It covers such categories as general information, presenting problems, personal and social history, scholastic strengths and weaknesses, current problems analysis, behavior, relationships, biological factors, sequential life history, and so forth. In short, this questionnaire provides a lot of baseline information about the individual in detail. For example, should an individual have low self-esteem or certain types of fears, it will show up here. Some of the data will also relate further signs and symptoms that may indicate possible abduction or encounter experiences. These questions being buried, so to speak, in the Multimodal Life History Questionnaire makes them not as leading or suggestive as they might be if they were located in the CE-4 Questionnaire.

The Medical History Questionnaire provides for a very in depth picture of the individual's medical history. Thus far, I have found that a very large number of encountrants seem to exhibit immunodeficiency type symptoms, for example--Chronic Fatigue & Lupus-like symptoms. I'm currently working with a medical doctor to help sort this out. Such symptoms might be due to an over exposure to strong magnetic fields, or radiation. Such speculation, however, is beyond the scope of this article. I will point out that many of the questions, as related in the medical questionnaire, may indicate further signs or symptoms relevant to possible abductions or encounters. These questions being located in a general medical questionnaire, make them less leading and non-suggestive than they might be should they be located in the CE-4 Questionnaire.


After obtaining the above data the initial interview takes place. During this interview the data is reviewed and elaborated upon. In all likelihood the encountrant has an anomalous memory, dream, or experience that he or she wishes to explore. These experiences are thoroughly explored consciously using cognitive interview techniques. The cognitive interview is a non-hypnotic memory retrieval technique that uses many different retrieval cues and memory access routes (Culver 15). The technique provides a very systematic method for obtaining a great deal of conscious information.

Once as much conscious memory as possible has been retrieved, hypnosis and suggestibility are explained in detail. The encountrant learns what to expect while in the hypnotic state, and any fears or misconceptions about hypnosis are subsequently allayed. During this initial hypnotic session, I do not attempt to explore any close encounter or abduction experiences. My purpose is to let the individual experience hypnosis and to prepare the individual for the next session for when the initial regression will take place. While the encountrant is in hypnosis I will attempt to clarify whether or not the event in question is actually related to an apparent encounter or abduction. I do this by asking "yes" or "no" questions and by having the encountrant answer the questions non-verbally via ideomotor responses.


It is explained to the encountrant that a question, or a series of questions will be asked, which will go directly to his or her subconscious mind. From this, an answer is expected from the subconscious mind free of any interference from the critical or conscious mind. It is explained that the encountrant may answer the question by raising the index finger of the right hand for a positive response or the index finger of the left hand for a negative response. These responses come directly through the central nervous system from the subconscious mind and occur without critical analysis from the conscious mind (Kappas 119). For example, when the question is asked, "Other than what we have already discussed about the UFO landing, did anything else occur that you have not mentioned?," the encountrant raises either the left or right index finger indicating the correct answer.

It is important that the individual concentrate on the question itself, rather than on the answer (120). All questions should be worded so that they may be answered only by a "yes" or "no" response (120). The question might even be raised, "Have you ever had an experience with what you consider to be an alien being or beings?" By using ideomotor responses, an idea whether or not the event in question is a good starting point for the initial regression may be determined.


Though ideomotor responses provide good information for a possible starting point for a regression, I will ultimately let the encountrant's subconscious mind choose the experience for exploration. This may be accomplished through dreams. Dreams that occur during the last third of sleep are the most important in therapy (143). They represent information that we wish to let go of or release. During this stage of the dreaming process the individual may ventilate fears, traumas, and doubts about past or present experiences. During this initial session, it may be suggested to the encountrant that he or she will release a memory of a significant encounter through his or her early morning waking dreams. In this way, the encountrant's subconscious mind has chosen an experience that he or she is ready to release. By letting the subconscious mind choose the experience, the regression may be less traumatic for the individual. The way I might suggest this to the encountrant is, "Between now and next week when we get back together, you will find yourself much more aware of your dreams. You will release a memory of a significant event concerning your 'alien encounters' (or what have you). Your subconscious mind will choose the memory that you are ready to remember and explore. When you awaken each day you will remember your dreams very easily and write them down, etc."

Dreams are an interesting subject and a great deal has been written about dreams. It is not within the scope of this article to go into depth about what is known about dreams. Suffice to say, that most dreams may be interpreted either literally or symbolically, and that one's conscious understanding of a dream symbol is usually correct (142). A generalized interpretation of dream symbols cannot possibly be correct for everyone, because dreams deal with subconscious symbols that are unique to each individual (142).


When the encountrant returns for the second interview, he or she in all likelihood has had a dream, or perhaps several dreams, that relate to a significant close encounter. The subconscious mind having had a week to process the idea of venting a memory usually does the trick. Most often, the dream information relates back to a consciously remembered event, although, this is not always the case. This dream information, along with any pertinent "happenings" that have occurred since the last interview are discussed. Cognitive interview techniques may be used again during this part of the interview depending upon the information that is related.

The encountrant is hypnotized and then questioned about the dream or dreams using the same ideomotor response techniques as before. The encountrant is asked, "Is this dream related to an actual event that you have experienced?" Usually, I get a positive response. Should this be the case, then the encountrant's subconscious mind is asked for permission to explore the memory of the event. Upon receiving permission, we explore the event. Should a negative response be received, then it is assumed that the encountrant was probably venting some fears or doubts concerning ET's or UFO's in general, and that particular event is not explored. I will then ask whether or not he or she would like to explore another memory and go on from there.


Even though hypnotic regression is often used for uncovering or for reexperiencing traumatic events, I normally do not use regression during the course of non-abduction oriented therapy. Usually the individual has worked through many traumas and fears from the past and it is unnecessary and even risky to uncover these healed wounds. Generally, while in hypnosis, many individuals will spontaneously regress back to a traumatic situation (135). This is usually enough to alleviate or lessen the trauma without actually regressing the individual back to a traumatic event. If it is necessary to search out the cause of a particular problem, dream therapy is generally used. Through the dreaming process, one may determine the cause of a particular problem with less trauma to the individual.

For the purposes of abduction research, however, it is necessary to maximize the amount of available information from the encountrant's unconscious memory. Age regression and revivification techniques are still the best methods for doing this, especially when there is little or no conscious memory of the event. During the regression, past scenarios and events will be systematically explored in a nonconfrontational and supportive manner with the encountrant acting as a "participant-observer."

Upon obtaining permission from the individual's subconscious mind to explore a particular event, the hypnotic state is deepened and he or she is tested for hypnotic depth. This being accomplished, the encountrant is given an escape route out of hypnosis. It is suggested that the encountrant may come out of hypnosis at any time simply by opening his or her eyes and saying "I'm out." Sometimes the encountrant may have a fear of loss of control, or the regression may touch on traumatic events that the he or she doesn't wish to reexperience. Providing this escape mechanism gives the encountrant the feeling of being more in control during the regression experience and provides a quick exit out of hypnosis should the need arise.


Once the encountrant is at an optimal depth of hypnosis, many different memory retrieval techniques may be used. One such technique utilizes the concept of the individual viewing the event in question on an imaginary television or movie screen. It is explained to the individual that he or she is going to view a film depicting information related to the event in question. This film may be forwarded, reversed, speeded up, slowed down, or stopped. It is suggested that the place where the individual is viewing the film is safe and that his or her emotional state shall remain calm and detached from anything seen or experienced. The encountrant will be observing this film like a reporter or detective, who is covering an event for a report that will later be written up (Reiser 158). Such techniques, however, may be considered controversial due to the way that human memory actually works (Orne, Dinges, Orne 3).

There are many such techniques that use similar convenient frames of reference from which to operate and a hypnotherapist may or may not choose to use them. An individual may simply be taken back to the target age/experience and given the same suggestions regarding calmness and detachment. Once this is done the person may see himself or herself as a second party, feel that the experience is being relived again, or simply remember the event (Kappas 134). Usually it is suggested that the individual relate the whole experience from beginning to end as freely and completely as possible. It is desirable to have the person give a complete uninterrupted narrative of the event before proceeding with any questioning for specifics.


It is important that the hypnotherapist be neutral, objective, and interested in the truth, whatever it may be, without compromising the emotional needs of the encountrant. It should be remembered that the line of questioning is a part of an "interviewing" process rather than an "interrogation" process. Questioning should avoid undue suggestion, coercion, or leading of the individual in any way. Open ended questions should be used, avoiding any references to specific things not previously mentioned by the encountrant. When the encountrant identifies specific details, questioning can then be more specific (Orne, Dinges, Orne 5). Questions should be carefully framed to avoid any bias. One should also be aware of the time lag for the individual's response in hypnosis. It is important not to rush in another question before allowing a response to a previous one (Reiser 82). It is a good idea to be aware of the encountrant's language capabilities and communicate at that level in a nontechnical and professional manner.


Can an individual lie under hypnosis? Do some individuals wish to please the hypnotherapist by telling him or her what the individual thinks the hypnotherapist wants to hear? The answer is "yes." Confabulation is the filling of memory gaps with imagined or distorted information (Reiser 232). Can a hypnotherapist tell when this is occurring? Most of the time. Abduction research being more "interview" oriented rather than "interrogation" oriented, does provide more opportunity for lies or confabulation to occur. Hypnotic testimony doesn't automatically relate the truth anymore than cognitive testimony. Hypnotic testimony, however, does provide one good avenue for obtaining information that is often unavailable by any other means. The researcher must look at the overall picture along with any corroborative evidence.

So what are some things that the hypnotherapist can do to help determine hypnotic testimonial veracity? One technique is to have the encountrant recall the events in a different order. Explain to the encountrant that it is natural for one to go through an incident from beginning to end; however, you would like him or her to start at the end and then go back to the beginning. Lies are created and are in a logical order. Having the encountrant start at various stages and working backwards confuses this order (Culver 17). This technique will also enhance memory recall.


The hypnotherapist may occasionally attempt to lead or misdirect the encountrant to see if he/she is hypersuggestible or desirous to please the hypnotherapist. There are many techniques for attempting to lead an individual during hypnosis. Some of these techniques use quick leads, assumptions, logic, biased opinions, and missing options (Behavioral Sciences Unit 212).

A quick lead uses statements that are very quick or abrupt that the therapist assumes the encountrant will relate next (212). For example, the encountrant might say, "I'm standing under the spaceship and there is a light coming down. It is all around me." The therapist might say, "The light is a bright red color right?" Then the encountrant says, "No. The light is yellowish white in color."

One assumption technique uses a double bind. That is, the first half of the question forms a false assumption which leads to several other false assumptions (212). Should the individual not go for the first assumption, you might get him or her on one of the others. For example, the therapist asks, "When the alien opens his mouth to speak, do you hear a low pitched voice or a high pitched voice?" The encountrant says, "He doesn't open his mouth to speak. He communicates with me mentally."

When using logical leads, it is assumed that a logical or rational response will be related by the encountrant upon being questioned about a given situation (212). For example, the encountrant might relate, "When I looked up at the spaceship, a light came down and engulfed me. I was scared to death." The therapist might say, "So you ran away?" The encountrant says, "No. I couldn't run. I was paralyzed. I couldn't move."

The therapist may offer a biased or strong opinion to a statement made by the encountrant to see if he/she will attempt to please the therapist with the appropriate response (213). The encountrant says, "I'm lying on a table and this being keeps sticking me with this probe-like thing." The therapist responds, "I would just go ahead and punch him in the face. I bet that is what you did?" The encountrant says, "No, I can't move."

When using the missing option technique several options are provided, but never the correct option (213). For the encountrant to answer the question, he/she must provide the missing option. The therapist says, "When you looked at the being's head, did you notice the being having big pointed ears, big round ears, or human-like ears?" The encountrant says, "He didn't really have ears like that . . . he seemed to have only small holes for ears."

The above techniques are but a few of the many methods that may be used in attempting to lead or redirect an individual. My personal experience is that I haven't been able to lead or redirect any encountrant that I've worked with. Also, I haven't found any "abductee want-to-be's" contrary to some skeptics' opinions. This is a group of which no one really wants to be a member.


Abduction research involves considerable closeness and psychological intimacy. Physical closeness may be an issue, especially where emotional or psychological trauma is involved. The typical American has a two-foot bubble (about arms length) of privacy around him or her (Reiser 84). A reassuring pat on the shoulder might be appropriate for one individual but not for another. Dr. Kappas found in his research concerning brain dominance and behavior, that left-brain dominant people tend to guard their space more than right-brain dominant people (Kappas 18). Crossed arms, clenched fists, restlessness, and exaggerated movement all provide clues to the encountrant's emotional state. Paying attention to these clues will provide much information and increase hypnotherapist/encountrant rapport.


For the majority of individuals an abduction encounter is very traumatic. The core experiences of psychological trauma are disempowerment and disconnection from others. In the book, TRAUMA AND RECOVERY, Dr. Judith Herman states the following:

"Traumatized people feel utterly abandoned, utterly alone, cast out of the human and divine systems of care and protection that sustain life. Thereafter, a sense of alienation, of disconnection, pervades every relationship, from the most intimate familial bonds to the most abstract affiliations of community and religion" (52).

It is difficult enough for an individual to come to terms with a traumatic experience such as rape, but imagine the additional trauma of a similar experience at the hand of "alien" beings. A rape victim, for example, has difficulty enough, in relating the experience to her family or friends, but who does she speak to about her abduction experience?

Individuals who have experienced close encounters or abductions tend to experience long term post traumatic stress symptoms. These individuals may exhibit confusion, loss of memory, various fears, helplessness, hypervigilance, increased startle response, anger, feelings of abandonment, along with various physical ailments, just to name a few (American Psychiatric Association 428).


During the regression, the encountrant should be allowed to ventilate any fears, anxieties or troubled feelings. In fact, the mere telling or recounting of the story by the encountrant is therapeutic. The therapeutic goal in recounting a traumatic story is integration (Herman 181). Traumatic testimony once told becomes a transformed story which is "no longer about shame and humiliation" but rather "about dignity and virtue" (Mollica in Herman 181).

The hypnotherapist should be prepared to intervene therapeutically as needed with the encountrant's emotional and psychological needs taking precedence over investigative needs. Therapeutic techniques should be utilized to assist in integrating the close encounter/abduction experiences into the individual's life as positively as may be expected.

One useful technique is to provide the encountrant with the opportunity, while in hypnosis, to imagine standing in front of one of the entities just previously described during the regression. It is then suggested that the encountrant imagine speaking to this entity and relating any positive or negative feelings or thoughts that the encountrant has concerning his or her encounter experiences. Such techniques provide for a very positive method for the individual to ventilate emotional trauma, and provide the sometimes first steps back to the road to self-empowerment. This is just one of the many techniques used in conventional therapy that is adaptable to abduction research.

The primary difficulty encountered concerning the therapeutic process, is that obtaining closure and full resolution of abduction/close encounter trauma is unlikely. A therapist may obtain closure on a past trauma, with an individual who has experienced, say, a rape, or catastrophic event. In all likelihood the event occurred only once in the individual's life and it is in the past. With therapy, the individual can move on and make progress with his or her life knowing that the event is in the past. For the encountrant, however, research demonstrates that abductions/encounters are an on going process. The encounters have occurred in the past, are occurring presently, and will occur again in the future. In my opinion, this one element separates encountrants from any other trauma population.

Many encountrants that I have dealt with seem to have difficulties arising from self-esteem and trust issues. My therapy centers primarily around these two aspects. It is beyond the scope of this article, however, to go into the therapeutic process in detail.


Upon completion of the hypnotic session a debriefing period follows. This "talk down" period helps clarify certain information and assists the encountrant in recalling any other pertinent data. This period is also very useful for the individual's further ventilating of any feelings or emotions associated with the remembered close encounter experience. It should be noted that individuals are still very suggestible just after a hypnotic session, so conversation should continue to be very supportive and non biased.

During the course of the research, I pretty much stick to the routine of cognitive interview, regression and debriefing. Should the individual be in a state of active crisis due to his or her realizations or experiences, then those sessions will deal only with therapy and regressions are not attempted.


As stated before, the core experiences of emotional trauma are disempowerment and disconnection from others. One of the best ways of dealing with this is through the use of a mutual help (support) group. A mutual help group provides an excellent means for reconnecting with others. Traumatic survivors tend to feel very alienated from the rest of society. Encountrants feel this separateness in a much more amplified way. This coming together with one's own peers is one of the most important steps to reconnecting with humanity and a sense of normalcy.

When we first started our mutual help group, the first meeting centered around a pot luck dinner. Having food around provided for a rather festive mood and "broke the ice" rather well. Our meetings tend to be informal and more like a family gathering. Although it is difficult at times, we try to shy away from the never ending speculation concerning the ultimate meaning of these alien encounters. We focus, rather, on strategies for self-empowerment.

The size of our group is about 35 people with about 15 to 20 members showing up for any given meeting. We meet irregularly but try to meet about every three weeks. Of course, there are certain individuals who wouldn't think of missing a meeting and are always present.


It is a good idea to have a therapist present, but this individual should play a passive role, unless of course, the therapist is an encountrant. The idea is mutual self help rather than group therapy. Mutual self help focuses on experiential rather than professional knowledge (Silverman 21). Experiential knowledge is the result of the direct experience and personal characteristics of the helper, and mutuality and reciprocity are the key elements in the helping process (21).

Researchers should be kept to a minimum at mutual help groups so that encountrants may feel that they may speak freely. If present, researchers should take a passive role similar to therapists. Researchers, however, can sometimes offer valuable insight regarding the abduction/close encounter experience.

Bringing a new encountrant to the group who hasn't explored many of his or her encounters may result in contamination. This contamination may "muddy the waters" so to speak from the researcher's view point, as well as the encountrant's view point. The researcher wants pertinent and accurate data that is not influenced by the testimony of others. If the encountrant is to integrate these experiences into his or her own life, then it is important to know that any memories recalled or uncovered by hypnotic regression are his or her own actual experiences. As stated before this recounting of the experience is important in the therapeutic process and is the first step toward self-empowerment.


As a rule, I do not recommend the of use hypnotic regression when working with young children. Even with therapeutic intervention, adults have enough difficulty integrating their abduction/encounter experiences into their daily lives. One can imagine the difficulty that a child who is still in the developmental stages of life, and who has less developed coping skills, might have with some aspects of this phenomenon. Should a child have conscious memory of an abduction/encounter experience, the memory is best dealt with consciously without attempting hypnotic revivication or enhancement.

Children who are encountrants often find that their encounters change at puberty. As young adults the encounters most often focus on procreation, this happening at a time when the adolescent is attempting to discover a sense of personal identity and self. Young adults have a host of issues all their own, and the use of hypnosis greatly depends upon the individual's level of maturity and family support. Parental consent should, of course, be obtained prior to any hypnotic attempts.


Those of us who do trauma counseling and critical incident stress debriefing, know that after debriefing perhaps thirty or forty individuals involved in a catastrophic event, it is a good idea for the debriefer to get debriefed. When a therapist shares in the traumatic experience with others either through doing a debriefing or therapy, it may be difficult not to be affected emotionally by the testimony thereby related. The old axiom of "physician heal thyself" is a good rule. The therapist occasionally being debriefed, or under going therapy, is probably good preventative medicine.


For me, researching this phenomena has been a challenge in many ways. Even though I have always been an individual with an extremely open mind in regards to the workings of the universe(s), researching this phenomena has broadened my view of "our agreed upon reality" even more so. I submit that no matter what one has studied, learned, or experienced in life, the study of these phenomena will stretch one's boundaries a little bit further. Personally, I'm on a quest for truth. Whether this phenomenon proves to be evidence for a collective unconscious, or for an unfathomable "alien" interaction with humanity, let the evidence speak for itself.


American Psychiatric Association, 1994. DIAGNOSTIC AND STATISTICAL MANUAL OF MENTAL DISORDERS, Fourth Edition, Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.

Culver, C. Leigh, 1994. "The Cognitive Interview: A Non-hypnosis Memory Retrieval Technique for the UFO Researcher," UFO ENCOUNTERS, Vol. 2, No. 1., Norcross: Aztec Publishing.

Fuller, John G., 1966. THE INTERRUPTED JOURNEY, New York: The Dial Press.

Behavioral Sciences Unit, 1991. HYPNOTIC TECHNIQUES FOR PUBLIC SAFETY PERSONNEL, Forsyth: Georgia Department of Public Safety.

Herman, Judith L., 1992. TRAUMA AND RECOVERY, New York: Basic Books, Harper Collins Publishers.


Kappas, John G., 1987. PROFESSIONAL HYPNOTISM MANUAL, Van Nuys: Panorama Publishing Company.

Orne, Martin T., Dinges, David F. and Orne, Emily C., 1984. "The Forensic Use of Hypnosis," NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF JUSTICE - RESEARCH IN BRIEF, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice.

Reiser, Martin, 1980. HANDBOOK OF INVESTIGATIVE HYPNOSIS, Los Angeles: Law Enforcement Hypnosis Institute Publishing Company.

Silverman, Phyllis R., 1980. MUTUAL HELP GROUPS: ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT, Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.

Copyright 1995 C. Leigh Culver. All rights reserved.

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